Cognitive Function And Vitamin B1

Superior Essays
Cognitive function is a complicated function of human brain. The risk factors of cognitive function are not comprehensive.

Cognitive function can be influenced by psychological (Santos et al.,2012 ), nutritional, medical (including medical conditions and prescription and nonprescription medications), social, economic, or behavioral, toxic environmental exposures, and genetic factors(Plassman et al., 2010) . As worldwide population aging, this topic increasingly interests researchers. There are thousands studies had done to find the specific factors associated with cognitive function, for instance loneliness (Boss, Kang, and Branson, 2015), exercise (Carvalho et al., 2014), neuroinflammation(Janssen et al., 2016), Mediterranean diet(Petersson
…show more content…
For example, more than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million.(Ogunkolade et al., 2013)

Vitamin B12(Cobalamine) is a group of compounds with corrinoid ring (4-pyrrole rings) with cobalt (Co). Vitamin B12 are synthesized exclusively by bacteria and have different functional groups chelated to Co. (University of Aberdeen, 2016)

Vitamin B12 and folate depend on each other for activation. Both vitamin B12 and folate are very important for DNA synthesis and cell replication.

The individual roles of vitamin B12 also essential for human beings. Vitamin B12 can maintain myelin sheath, promote normal growth of nerve cells, and be involved in bone cell metabolism/activity.

Vitamin B12 and folic acid reduce homocysteine to methionine, which is then converted into S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a crucial co-factor for 150+ methyltransferases including glycine n-methyltransferase (GNMT) in the one carbon pathway.(Mitchell, Conus, and Kaput, 2014). Therefore, High levels of homocysteine (Hcy) are associated with low levels of B vitamins. (Quality, 2014). Hcy could cause cognitive impairment via direct neurotoxicity.(Morris, 2012; Bednarska-Makaruk et al.,
…show more content…
When the results using both cognitive tests were compared with vitamin B12 level and both MMMSE and MMMSE plus PFAQ have association with vitamin B12 level, p=0.002, p=0.008 respectively(Castillo-Lancellotti et al., 2015). As Castillo-Lancellotti et al., suggested, MMMSE may be a better measurement for estimating cognitive function(score≤13)(Folstein, Folstein, and McHugh,

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Carbohydrate Benefits

    • 858 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Vitamin C is necessary for hydroxylation of lysine and proline in collagen formation as well as cross linking. It protects tissue from super-oxide damage and enhances tissue regeneration. It is recommended to provide 500-1000 milligram a day in patients with pressure ulcers. Zinc is a cofactor in over 100 different enzyme systems that promote protein synthesis, cellular replication and collagen formation. Its recommended does is 15-50 milligram of elemental zinc in patients with pressure ulcers.…

    • 858 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Vitamin D Research Paper

    • 909 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Both Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3 are biologically inactive, whether obtained through UVB exposure, diet or supplements. There is evidence vitamin D3 is better absorbed than vitamin D2. In the liver, the vitamin D is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], known as calcifidiol, and in the kidney it becomes the biologically active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] or calcitriol. Calcitriol is a hormone that promotes active intestinal calcium and phosphate transport to be used for bone formation and remodeling…

    • 909 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Mineral Vitamins Essay

    • 7979 Words
    • 32 Pages

    For example, folic acid carries various forms of carbon group – methyl, formyl and methylene - in the cell. Although these roles in assisting enzyme reactions are vitamins' best-known function, the other vitamin functions are equally…

    • 7979 Words
    • 32 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    The first hydroxylation would produce 25-hydrocy-vitamin D3 while the second would produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), which is the most active form of vitamin D. A-1-hydroxylase activity would be increased by parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the presence of low plasma concentrations, producing increased amounts of calcitriol. Enzyme activity will decrease when calcitriol levels are…

    • 1113 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    Phosphorus: This mineral is most abundant in the body, like calcium it too helps with building strong bones and teeth. Also, small quantities of it are present in the tissues and cells throughout the body. To increase the amounts of phosphorus in my diet I could consume for tofu, low fat dairy products, and lentils. 16. Riboflavin: This vitamin is another B vitamin; it helps with converting carbohydrates into glucose (fuel) which can be used to produce energy.…

    • 1626 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    B Vitamins

    • 885 Words
    • 4 Pages

    This explains B5's alternate name, which stems from the Greek word "pantos," meaning "everywhere." B5 is crucial to metabolism; the release of energy; fighting allergies; hormone secretion; the synthesis of fat, proteins and carbohydrates; and the maintenance of muscles, nerves and the skin. It also helps the creation of lipids, neurotransmitters and hemoglobin, and is believed to reduce stress. But it wasn't until the 1990s that B5 became popular in dermatology. While it's true that this vitamin is found, at least in small quantities, in most foods, there are food sources that supply higher quantities of pantothenic acid.…

    • 885 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Magnesium Essay

    • 1225 Words
    • 5 Pages

    It is widely used in various biomedical applications and it is present in bone and primarily serve as structural protein of extracellular matrics. The tissues regeneration are often limited by their poor mechanical properties where it can be improved by included the hydroxyapatite compound. The combination of this properties between natural polymer and bioactive ceramic materials make the bone regeneration done smoothly (Maddela Swetha et al., 2010). Collagen is the major components of extracellular matrix such as tendons, ligaments and skin. The biocomposites of hydroxyapatite/collagen are inadequate so magnesium will be used as a doping to improve the mechanical and physical properties of bone in biomedical fields (Nebahat Degirmenbasi et al., 2006).…

    • 1225 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Vitamin D Synthesis

    • 1672 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Introduction Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids which is responsible for improving the intestinal absorption of inorganic ions such as calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium, phosphate. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) are most vital compounds in the human being. Vitamin D is not actually a vitamin, but a steroid hormone formed in the body when the skin is exposed to sunbeams, mainly ultraviolet B light (UVB) rays22. The compound vitamin D has been found in organisms that are more than 500 million years old, including phytoplankton (Emiliania huxleyi), and diatoms (Skeletonema menxelii), which can endogenously synthesize vitamin D (ergosterol, or vitamin D2).Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with pleiotropic…

    • 1672 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Conversely, the smt1 mutant in Arabidopsis accumulates cholesterol and has less C-24 alkylated sterol contents (e.g. less campesterol, sitosterol and stigmasterol) (Diener et al., 2000). This indicates a pivotal role for SMT1 in the channeling of sterol synthesis between alkylated and non-alkylated sidechain sterols. A second methylation can further increase the sterol side-chain length. This step is catalyzed by sterol methyltransferase type-2 (SMT2), and the preferred substrate is 24-methylene lophenol.…

    • 681 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Probiotic Cream Case Study

    • 1336 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Fatty acid composition not only affects physical properties, oxidative stability and sensory quality of dairy products but also positively influences humans’ health. Some health properties of fermented dairy products are due to the synthesis or release of bioactive substances including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), exopolysaccharides (EPS), bioactive peptides, vitamins, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and oligosaccharides in the food matrix resulted from the metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), propionibacteria, yeasts and molds (Yadav et al., 2007; Ekinci et al., 2008). Therefore, recent clinical studies have focused on fatty acids with biological activity such as butyric acid, oleic acid, and CLA which may have key roles in the prevention of diseases. The CLA is a rare and unique compound compared to other anti-cancer compounds which despite its small amount in dairy products and ruminants meats, has wonderful effects including reduction of body fat accumulation, delaying the onset of type II diabetes, delaying the development of atherosclerosis, improving and preventing osteoporosis and improving the function of immune system. The fatty acid content of milk influenced by many factors, including, geography quality of agricultural activities, race, type and genetics and physiology of animals and also depends on milk processing…

    • 1336 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays