Cyclooxygenase

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    Prostaglandins are one group of eicosanoids. They are unsaturated fatty acids derivatives that are involved in the contraction of smooth muscle, the control of homeostatic activities such as, inflammation and body temperature, and many more functions of the body. Prostaglandins are derived from arachidonic acid. The formation of the both the arachidonic acid, then prostaglandin molecules begins with a stimulus to a cell, that activates a membrane enzyme called phospholipase A2. The arachidonic acid metabolized from the phospholipase is now the substrate for one enzyme during the process of production . The enzyme cyclooxygenase or (COX) transforms the arachidonic acid. The product of this reaction continues to go through an enzymatic reaction…

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    inhibiting the enzyme that facilitates the biochemical reactions responsible for the production of prostaglandins. The reason the enzyme (which is a catalyst) is necessary lies in the molecular structure of arachidonic acid, which synthesizes prostaglandins. Arachidonic acid is a carboxylic acid that, as shown below, contains a chain of 20 carbon atoms in its molecule. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH2CH2-COOH The double bonds present in this structure control the shape of the…

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    Ibuprofen Synthesis Essay

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    Based on our findings, the NSAIDs aspirin and ibuprofen do have an impact on the heart rate of the Lumbriculus variegatus worms as evidenced by Figures 2 and 3 above. We observed that caffeine also had an impact on the heart rate of the worms. We can state that our hypothesis was correct when it came to the ibuprofen solutions because evidence supports the claim that the ibuprofen does increase the heart rate in Lumbriculus variegatus. Furthermore, as the concentration of ibuprofen increased,…

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    COX-1 Vs Cox-2

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    Introduction Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used in human and veterinary medicine to control pain and inflammation. Many commonly used NSAIDs, however, have serious adverse effects, including gastrointestinal ulcers, erosion, and perforation. Non-selective NSAIDs inhibit the activity of both cyclooxygenase isoforms: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is primarily responsible for the inflammatory response, while COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most cells and is the dominant source of…

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    Pros And Cons Of Aspirin

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    the pain they cause. For instance, prostaglandins are a part of a chain of reactions. The text states, “Prostaglandin D2 is the principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages” (“Prostaglandin D2”). Arachidonic acid is a fatty acid that is necessary in processes involved with prostaglandins. Cyclooxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the prostaglandin. The quote above demonstrates that,…

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    Drug is a substance that is used for diagnosis, cure, treatment, mitigation or prevention of disease. It is either a natural product, pharmaceutical preparation or chemical substance. Anti-inflammatory drugs are used for treating inflammation which is characterized by four cardinal signs: redness, pain, swelling and warmth. Most of anti-inflammatory drugs work by inhibiting prostaglandins secretion. Prostaglandins are the chemicals that responsible for promoting inflammation, fever and pain.…

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    Chronic Inflammation

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    They produce eicosanoid family inflammatory mediators. They then split up to either the lipoxygenase pathway or cyclooxygenase. The lipoxygenase produces leukotrienes while the cyclooxygenase produces prostaglandins and thromboxane. All help in inflammatory responses. Platelet-Activating Factor, or PAF, activates neutrophils and attracts eosinophils, additionally, starting platelet cluster formation. Furthermore, PAF can cause many different things if injected or inhaled, some examples are,…

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    Curcuminoids Essay

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    metabolic disorders can be improved by dietary.4 Researchers have reported that curcumin can reduce oxidative damage and amyloid pathology by using rats with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).5 Roles of Inflammation and anti-inflammatory of curcumin Wide ranges of medical plants have phenolic compounds that own anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities.4,10 Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important enzymes that interferes inflammatory activities.4…

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    the affected area re characteristics of the inflammation process. Minor inflammations may occur as the result of a break in the skin. The more severe forms of inflammation are usually associated with rheumatic disorders such as arthritis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce inflammation but are not related to steroids which also reduce inflammation. NSAIDs work by reducing the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are chemicals that promote inflammation, pain, and fever.…

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    Although there are no proven techniques to prevent Alzheimer’s, but there’s strong evidence that a handful of factors which are affiliated with a healthy lifestyle may decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. However, further investigation is needed to yet show what role these factors may play in Alzheimer’s prevention. These factors include: • Pharmaceuticals • Nutriceuticals • Diet • Physical and cognitive activity Pharmaceuticals A number of pharmaceutical agents are under…

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