Cyclooxygenase

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  • Drugs In The Body Research Paper

    inhibiting the enzyme that facilitates the biochemical reactions responsible for the production of prostaglandins. The reason the enzyme (which is a catalyst) is necessary lies in the molecular structure of arachidonic acid, which synthesizes prostaglandins. Arachidonic acid is a carboxylic acid that, as shown below, contains a chain of 20 carbon atoms in its molecule. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH2CH2-COOH The double bonds present in this structure control the shape of the molecule. For the prostaglandins to be formed, however, this isomer must react with oxygen to form a ring near the central part of the carbon chain. The only way that it can happen is in the presence of enzyme molecules. The enzyme in question is called cyclooxygenase (COX), which is also known as prostaglandin H2 synthase (PGHS). There are two types of these enzymes, and these are COX 1 (PGHS-1) and COX 2 (PGHS-2). Between the two, COX 1 is perceived as good, and it is found in many parts of the body. COX 1 catalyses the creation of the prostaglandin responsible for functions like maintaining mucous lining in the stomach and making blood platelets stick together to form clots over wounds. COX 2 is regarded as bad and is only secreted as needed in the cells that are used in immune response and inflammation. COX 2 catalyses the creation of prostaglandins near the site of injury that are responsible for inflammation and pain. All the same, aspirin blocks these two enzymes. The structure…

    Words: 1440 - Pages: 6
  • Ibuprofen Synthesis Essay

    Based on our findings, the NSAIDs aspirin and ibuprofen do have an impact on the heart rate of the Lumbriculus variegatus worms as evidenced by Figures 2 and 3 above. We observed that caffeine also had an impact on the heart rate of the worms. We can state that our hypothesis was correct when it came to the ibuprofen solutions because evidence supports the claim that the ibuprofen does increase the heart rate in Lumbriculus variegatus. Furthermore, as the concentration of ibuprofen increased,…

    Words: 839 - Pages: 4
  • COX-1 Vs Cox-2

    Introduction Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used in human and veterinary medicine to control pain and inflammation. Many commonly used NSAIDs, however, have serious adverse effects, including gastrointestinal ulcers, erosion, and perforation. Non-selective NSAIDs inhibit the activity of both cyclooxygenase isoforms: COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is primarily responsible for the inflammatory response, while COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most cells and is the dominant source of…

    Words: 612 - Pages: 3
  • Identify And Explain The Difference Between COX-1 And Cox-2

    Drug is a substance that is used for diagnosis, cure, treatment, mitigation or prevention of disease. It is either a natural product, pharmaceutical preparation or chemical substance. Anti-inflammatory drugs are used for treating inflammation which is characterized by four cardinal signs: redness, pain, swelling and warmth. Most of anti-inflammatory drugs work by inhibiting prostaglandins secretion. Prostaglandins are the chemicals that responsible for promoting inflammation, fever and pain.…

    Words: 284 - Pages: 2
  • Pros And Cons Of Aspirin

    the pain they cause. For instance, prostaglandins are a part of a chain of reactions. The text states, “Prostaglandin D2 is the principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages” (“Prostaglandin D2”). Arachidonic acid is a fatty acid that is necessary in processes involved with prostaglandins. Cyclooxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the prostaglandin. The quote above demonstrates that,…

    Words: 1104 - Pages: 5
  • Chronic Inflammation

    They produce eicosanoid family inflammatory mediators. They then split up to either the lipoxygenase pathway or cyclooxygenase. The lipoxygenase produces leukotrienes while the cyclooxygenase produces prostaglandins and thromboxane. All help in inflammatory responses. Platelet-Activating Factor, or PAF, activates neutrophils and attracts eosinophils, additionally, starting platelet cluster formation. Furthermore, PAF can cause many different things if injected or inhaled, some examples are,…

    Words: 382 - Pages: 2
  • Curcuminoids Essay

    metabolic disorders can be improved by dietary.4 Researchers have reported that curcumin can reduce oxidative damage and amyloid pathology by using rats with Alzheimer’s disease (AD).5 Roles of Inflammation and anti-inflammatory of curcumin Wide ranges of medical plants have phenolic compounds that own anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities.4,10 Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important enzymes that interferes inflammatory activities.4…

    Words: 915 - Pages: 4
  • Gout-Primary Diagnosis

    Mobic 7.5mg PO daily. Norvasc 2.5mg PO daily. Lipitor 10mg PO daily. Allopurinol is a Xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI) and considered the first-line therapy for the treatment of gout (Khanna et al., 2012). “Allopurinol, an analog of the purine-based hypoxanthine, inhibits the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid by xanthine oxidase (xanthine oxido-reductase)” (Hershfield et al., 2013, p. 154). Mobic is an Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs are widely prescribed…

    Words: 358 - Pages: 2
  • Prevent Alzheimer's Disease

    Although there are no proven techniques to prevent Alzheimer’s, but there’s strong evidence that a handful of factors which are affiliated with a healthy lifestyle may decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. However, further investigation is needed to yet show what role these factors may play in Alzheimer’s prevention. These factors include: • Pharmaceuticals • Nutriceuticals • Diet • Physical and cognitive activity Pharmaceuticals A number of pharmaceutical agents are under…

    Words: 501 - Pages: 3
  • Essay On Tumor Metastasis

    in larger undifferentiated cell populations as potential targets for environmental mutagens (Grivennikov et al., 2010). Deactivation of repair enzymes by chronic inflammation, resulting in loss of tumor suppressors has also been suggested as a potent cause for inflammation-associated tumor initiation (Colotta et al., 2009). Angiogenesis plays a primary role in growth, malignant transformation and invasion of tumors into underlying stroma. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) regulate blood vessel…

    Words: 455 - Pages: 2
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