Cytochrome c

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    exposer to SK-N-SH cells. Exposed differentiated neuronal cells showed significant dose-dependent increase levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), even at with sub-lethal concentration (DBT, and Ret). Intracellular superoxide measurement analyses by Mitosox stained cells revealed similar patterns of ROS. Though ROS production contributes significantly to induced apoptotic cell death, we hypothesized that PACs trigger ROS production, leading to the activation of apoptotic signaling pathway. The mitochondrial membrane potentiality was significantly deteriorated, and the real-time RT-PCR revealed up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulation of ant-oxidative genes expression in BaP-, DBT-, and Ret-treated SK-N-SH cells. The cytochrome c protein level and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. Alkyl-PACs showed more potent to induce ROS and reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential than the parent PAC. In summary, BaP, DBT, and Ret may induce neurotoxicity by the oxidative stress through mitochondria mediated apoptosis pathway. 3. Results 3.1. Cell viability MTT assays were performed to determine the LC10 and LC20 doses of each PAC in SK-N-SH cell lines. Cells were treated with different concentration of the PACs for 24 hours, and the individual chemical’s lethal concentration was shown in the Fig 1. Cells were treated with LC10 and LC20 doses of each chemical for the determination of individual chemical profiles. 3.2.…

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    CYP2D6 is a Phase I oxidative metabolism enzyme that is clinically important because about 20-25% of clinically used drug are metabolized by the CYP2D6 enzyme. CYP2D6 substrates are typically lipophilic and include drugs such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, antiarrhythmic, antiemetic, and opioids. The exact clinical effect of the polymorphism is dependent on the drug and the variant alleles expressed because individual allele variants can lead to a range of metabolic ability from ultrarapid…

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    Steroid use for high school sports can have many negative affects on your body, that people don’t realize. The human body reacts differently to different things. People take steroids to help their performance in sports. They may also take them to enlarge their muscles. What they don’t know is that it has more than just positive effects. They are too caught up in their appearance to even realize all of the side effects it can put out. Males are proven to take most of the blame for the use of…

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    Part B Q1. The normal dose of paracetamol is very safe to use and it is not over 4g per 24 hours; however, when the patient take more than 6g per 24 hours of paracetamol, the liver necrosis will happen within 10 to 12 hours and liver damage may occur within 24 to 48 hours. For the metabolism, most of the paracetamol is converted to nontoxic metabolites by the phase II conjugation of glucuronide and sulfate and a small amount of paracetamol is oxidized by the Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the…

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    WHAT IS OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING? Object oriented programming in a methodology of software development that allows for the designation of functions to be applied to data structures such as classes, these classes are referred to as objects, hence the name. Object-Oriented coding is one of multiple major programming paradigms. These include but are not limited to; Imperative, Logical, Functional and Object oriented. Problems that can be solved by one of these paradigms can normally be solved by…

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    Visual Basic can be used to create UI and UX rich programs for Windows platforms in a very short time. Whereas, C++ can be used to write complex programs that needs to computer faster without using much hardware resources. C++ is command line based language, on the other hand, Visual Basic is IDE and event driven language. For example, creating a pop up box in C++ is a tedious task. If the programmer is writing from scratch, making a window appear in C++ will take you 15 minutes to program…

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    When I started this course, I was unaware of the different types of writing and the massive amounts of research behind it. Prompts given to me were thought provoking and interesting, so I took a lot of interest in various types of arguments and assignments. What caught my interest in this subject is how, as a writer, one has to argue from both sides, include research data to support them, and then conclude them with a winning argument. My collection of persuasive writing demonstrates that I…

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    Opc Disadvantages

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    There are different types of programming such as object-oriented programming (OOP), event-driving programming (EDP), and procedural program, (PP). Some people may agree that there are advantages of using OOP instead of only using PP. A class may have one attribute and one method, in which the class represents an event, the attributes the class stores and the purpose of the method. The class, attributes, and methods share a relationship. Visual Logic is used to learn about programming but lacks…

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    One of the objectives of this research is to develop a tool in Java programming language. Following the stated objective, CBPTT was developed in Java language and integrated using the NetBeans IDE 8.0.2 software. In order to show how pairwise combination strategy and constraints strategy was implemented in CBPTT let consider the example illustrated in Table 1.1. There are three parameters with quantity of 2, 3 and 3. These parameters are input as string which is presented as {2,3,3}. From this…

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    As I stood in an unfamiliar building full of unfamiliar faces, I choose to do the only thing that made me comfortable—be alone. On the nerve-racking first day of school, I had no intentions of being social. I went straight to my vacant first hour, even though class did not start for twenty minutes. In fact, for almost the whole year I continuted to brake the norm of socializing and headed straight to first hour when the bus dropped me off. I discovered it was beneficial to organize myself before…

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