Cognitive biases

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    Cognitive Biases Essay

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    Intelligence and Policy Midterm Definitions Cognitive Biases: Cognitive Biases are the expectations analysts carry with them before they even approach raw data. These biases originate in the analyst’s education, experiences, upbringings, and cultural history, including plays, literature or national songs. Cognitive biases can come in several different forms, one of which is the expectation that the world is coherent, rational, and that states will seek to maximize their material and strategic benefits. Biases can also originate in an analysts’ belief in their target’s inferiority. An example of this is the Nazi’s belief that Slavic Soviet peoples were inferior and therefore incapable of mounting an effective resistance to their invasion. Analysts can also be biased by ethnocentrism when they assume that their cultural values and…

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    I. Background A profound and prolific Danish existentialist philosopher, theologian, psychologist, social critic and writer in nineteenth century, Søren Kierkegaard, stated “There are two ways to be fooled. One is to believe what isn't true; the other is to refuse to believe what is true.” His statement is exactly what to refer to in how cognitive biases may affect judicial decisions. The judges or jurors in the court are limited human observers; therefore, they are confined by the boundaries of…

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    Interpersonal Communication Assignment 1: Essay A+ = Situations are perceptively explained. Appropriate theories are defined well and applied accurately to the situations discussed. Analysis shows abstract thinking and insight. Clear evidence and specific examples given that show that the student has drawn original conclusions from their reflections. Self-evaluation shows that the student has extracted and internalised the personal significance of their reflections. Includes a wide range…

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    Depression: A Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective Aetiology of depression is multifactorial, with risk factors including low levels of parental warmth, high levels of family hostility, abuse and poverty (Gledhill & Hodes, 2010). Environment, cognitive and behavior are significant factors that cause the onset and duration of depression (Carvalho, Trent, & Hopko, 2011). Depression can affect all aspects of life, and may even lead to more serious problems including suicide. Although there is still a…

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    Cognitive bias is a limitation in objective thinking that is caused by the tendency for the human brain to perceive information through a filter of personal experience and preferences. Cognitive biases are often a result of an attempt to simplify information processing. Psychologists Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky introduced the concept of psychological bias in the early 1970s. They published their findings in their 1982 book, "Judgment Under Uncertainty." Becuase of the sheer…

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    GlucoGage with their smartphones within the month, but that it was suspected this number was inaccurate. I was asked to determine the actual number of smartphone-using customers wait a month between syncing their readings. I stated that I believed 25% of smartphone-using customers wait a month before syncing their GlucoGauge readings. Refection While taking part in this simulation, I found it was often difficult to make informed decisions, due to this ambiguity. Not only was I faced with…

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    decisions that people make are tainted with errors and swayed in large part by a huge range of biases. In their book “Judgment under Uncertainty”, psychologists Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic and Amos Tversky published their findings on cognitive bias in which they define cognitive bias as the disposition that people have of making decisions or taking actions in an illogical manner. Some biases may relate to memory and some biases may have to do more with attention. For example, the way an…

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    A cognitive bias is a common tendency to acquire and process information by filtering it through one's own likes, dislikes, and experiences. These are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics. There are many types of these cognitive biases, which analyze the reasons why we think what we think. The cognitive biases are all the different ways that our brains process information and sort through situations. We think of these through situational experiences and formulate perceptions from…

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    Keith Stanovich’s The Robot’s Rebellion delves deep into the world of evolutionary psychology, stating how modern society is stuck in a technologically run programme of sorts where we are all but robots stuck in a world revolved around our most primal cognitive abilities. In the introductory pages of this novel, Stanovich draws our attention to four notable theorists, among them, philosopher Daniel Dennett who refers to the implications that modern evolutionary theory will have on the…

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    Cognitive Ability and Prejudice Contrasts that foresee prejudice has intrigued social and personality psychologist since Allport 's time and research has set up the relationship between an assortment of individual differences and prejudice. One example of individual difference would be (low) cognitive ability. With the new theoretical models being developed, they help to account for social and psychological factors that merge its association with prejudice. “These theoretical perspectives…

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