A more recent study was conducted in the Netherlands. An examination was done on the relationship between depression and external locus of control. Participants who scored high on the external locus of control were at higher risk for having depressive symptoms (Dijk, Dijkshoom, Dijk, Cremer, & Agyemang, 2013). Cognitive distortion was suggested to be an important construct in behavioral and cognitive views (Hammond & Romney, 1995). A more recent study examined how depressive symptoms relate to self-perceptions and cognitive distortions about the self (McGrath & Repetti, 2002). Children who reported having depressive symptoms experienced a change in negative views of the self and underestimated their actual competence (McGrath & Repetti, 2002).
Children who were exposed to abuse or sexual abuse in early childhood report later in life more risky behaviors and depression rather than PTSD (Danielson, et al., 2010). These risky behaviors included delinquent behaviors, underage drinking, intoxication and non-experimental drug use (Danielson, et al., 2010). Underage drinking was the most common risky behavior reported (Danielson, et al., …show more content…
These are explanations for the development of depression and a relevant impact of the learned helplessness on preclinical research (Hankel, Bussfeld, H.-J., & Hegerl, 2002). When experiencing these feeling individuals may also feel lonely and tend to isolate themselves from others (Hammond & Romney, 1995).
Summary and Conclusion Depression is the second leading cause of disability (Ma-Li & Licinio, 2001). This is something that could happen early in childhood and continue to plague the individual into adulthood. Child maltreatment and traumatic events in early childhood can lead to lasting mental health issues (Danielson, et al., 2010). Traumatic events can occur in the family, social, and school environments. This, in turn, can affect cognitive factors, for example self-perception and external locus of control. The individual’s behavior may be some indicators that there are some depressive symptoms that should be evaluated. Again, these risky behaviors may include underage drinking, intoxication, antisocial behaviors, non-experimental drug use, feelings of being helpless or hopeless, and delinquent behaviors. The Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective attempts to explain these areas and provide information on possible treatment