time in his adult life, Axel Oxenstierna, Chancellor of Sweden, suffered through a sleepless night. On November 6, 1632, Gustav II Adolf (also known as Gustavus Adolphus, the Latinized version of his name), the king of Sweden, fell during the Battle of Lutzen, part of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) being fought by Sweden, France, and their allies against the Holy Roman Empire, and its allies. While Gustav had an heir in his daughter Christina, she was only 6 years old at the time of her father’s death, and could not take power to the throne until her 18th birthday, per the Swedish laws of primogeniture. She was, however, officially crowned while yet a girl of 6, due to Sweden’s rule of law requiring a vote of the estates for…
The Stockholm Bloodbath. Kristian II ‘the Tyrant’ executes 100 people.
1521–1611: The Vasa Period
1523: Gustav Vasa becomes king. He continues the centralisation of power and Sweden becomes a unified state. The population increases.
1527 onwards: Sweden breaks with the pope – the Reformation. The Catholic Church loses its secular power in Sweden, but Catholicism co-exists with Protestantism for a long time.
1544: Hereditary monarchy is introduced.
In the mid-1500s there were around 1.3…