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20 Cards in this Set

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What is McDonaldisation of society?
A process by which the principles of the fast-food industry come to be applied to more and more features of social life.
What is a social group?
Two or more people who identify and interact with one another.
What is primary group?
A small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships.
What is a secondary group?
A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific interest or
activity
What is a reference group?
A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions (primary OR secondary).
What is a dyad?
A social group with two members (Georg Simmel) with a special kind of relationship.
(more intense)
What is a triad?
A social group with three members which is more stable than a dyad.
What are the 4 ways in which the composition of social groups affects intergroup associations? (Peter Blau)
1) large groups turn inwards
2) Heterogeneous groups turn outwards
3) Social parity (Gleichheit) promotes contact (Caldera)
4) Physical boundaries foster social boundaries
What is a formal organization?
Large, secondary groups that are organized to achieve their goals efficiently (UN, NATO, Red Cross).
What are the two types of formal organizations?
1) utilitarian organizations
2) normative organizations
What are utilitarian organizations?
They prove material rewards (Belohnungen) for its members (e.g. income).
What are normative organizations?
Members join to pursue goals they consider morally worthwhile.
What are total institutions?
Settings in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff. (Sekten)
What is bureaucracy (according to Weber)?
An organizational model rationally designed to perform complex tasks efficiently.
What are the 6 key elements of the ideal bureaucratic organization?
1) Specialization
2) Hierarchy of offices (vertical hierarchy)
3) Rules and regulations
4) Technical competence (impersonal evaluation)
5) Impersonality
6) Formal, written communication (‘paperwork’)
What is bureaucratic ritualism?
A preoccupation (Hauptbeschäftigung) with rules and regulations to the point of thwarting (Vereitelung) an organization’s goals.
What are the 4 basic organizational principles of the McDonaldisation of society?
1) Efficiency (schnell erledigen)
2) Calculability (done due to a calculated plan)
3) Uniformity and predictability (specifies everything and leaves nothing to chance)
4) Control through automation
What is humanizing bureaucracies?
Fostering a more democratic organizational atmosphere that recognizes and encourages the contributions (Beitrag) of everyone (people are the greatest assets [Vermögen] of an organization)
What is networked individualism?
Each person sits at the centre of their own personal community.
What are the 5 features of a network society?
1) information as the raw material to act on
2) the pervasiveness of information technologies (they’re everywhere
3) the network logic of any system using them
4) flexibility
5) convergence of technology