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37 Cards in this Set

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What is the social construction of space?
The ways in which humans come to make, organize and transform the locations through which lives are then conducted (geleitet).

Gestaltung von Lebensraum, Bedeutung des eigenen Haues/Nachbarn etc.
What is demography?
The study of human population.

e.g. dempgraphic change = more and more old people - less and less children
What is fertility?
It shapes the numbers born.
= the incidence of child-bearing in a country’s population
What is fecundity?
It is the maximum possible child-bearing.
What is crude birth rate?
The number of live births in a given year for every 1000 people in a population.
What is total period fertility rate (TPFR)?
The average number of children each woman would have in her lifetime if the average number of children born to all woman of child-bearing age in any given year remained constant during that woman’s child-bearing years.
What is mortality?
It shapes the numbers who die.
= the incidence of death in a country’s population
What is the crude death rate?
The number of deaths in a given year for every 1000 people in a population.
What is life expectancy?
The average age to which people in a given society are likely to live.
What is the infant (Säuging) mortality rate?
The number of deaths among infants under 1 year of age for 1000 live births in a given year.
What is natural increase?
When there are more births than deaths.

-mortality & fertility are natural factors of population growth
What is migration?
It shows patterns of people moving in and out of a country.
= the movement of people into and out of a particular territory
What does the study of pull-factors?
It explains why certain areas attract immigration.

e.g. many Syrians come Italy/Greece or through Marocco to Spain, because its so close
What is the study of push-factors?
It explains why in certain areas people voluntary emigrate.
What is the in-migration rate?
Immigration; the number of people entering an area for every 1000 people in the population.
What is the out-migration rate?
Emigration, the number leaving for every 1000 people.
What is the net migration rate?
Immigration rate – emigration rate in comparison.
What is internal migration?
The movement within a country from one region to another due to social factors.

-Normaler Umzug aus Arbeitsgründen, Streit, etc.
What is sex ratio?
The number of males for every 100 females in a given population.

-usually <100 because females outlive (überleben) men
What is the age-sex-pyramid?
A graphical representation of the age and sex of a population.
What does the Malthusian theory say?
The limited range of farmland could only sustain (aushalten) an arithmetic increase in the production of food even though the population begun to increase geometrically (doubling).

- population growth should be slowed down
What is the demographic transition theory?
A thesis linking population patterns to a society’s level of technological development.
What are the 4 stages of this theory?
1) pre-industrial; high birth rates & high death rates → slow population growth

2) early-industrial: high birth rates & declining death rates → rapid population growth

3) mature-industrial: dropping birth rates & low death rates → slowing population growth

4) post-industrial: falling birth rates & steady death rates → very slow / declining population growth
What is zero-population growth?
The level of reproduction, migration and death that maintains (aufrechterhalten) population at a steady (stabil) state.
What is urbanization?
The concentration of humanity into cities.
What are the 4 differing patterns of urban life?
1) The evolution of early cities (beginning 12.000 years ago)
2) The rise of industrial cities (after 1750)
3) Explosive growth of mega-cities in low-income countries (late 20th century)
4) Recent rise of global cities
What is a metropolis?
A large city that socially and economically dominates an urban area. (after WWI)
What are suburbs (Vorstadt)?
Urban areas beyond the political boundaries of a city.
What are mega-cities?
A city with a population exceeding 8 million.
What is a megalopolis?
Vast (gewaltig) urban region containing an number of cities and their surrounding suburbs.
What are world cities?
Large, urban regions, highly interconnected through which finance, economic decision-making and international labor flow.
What is agglomeration?
Urban continuum.

Stadt im siedlerischem Sinne = Kernstadt samt ihrem suburbanen Umland, das außerhalb der Stadtgrenzen liegt, aber direkt an sie angrenzt.
-> Bremen & Lilienthal etc.
What are global cities?
Cities with considerable economic power, commanding global investments and the concentration and accumulation (Anhäufung) of capital. (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York)
What is urban ecology?
The study of the link between the physical and social dimensions of cities.

(Burgess: developed concentric model
Hoyt: added wedge-shape sectors
Ullman: as cities decentralize, they lose their single centre form in favor of a multi-centered model)
What is the zonal theory?
From Burgess’s concentric circles (business districts at the core, bordered by factories, encircled by residential) to Harris and Ullman’s multi-centred model.
What is the social area analysis?
It looks at what people in an area have in common.(important factors: family patterns, social class, race and ethnicity)
What does the process of 'gentrification' implies?
Areas in decline are transformed into areas of prosperity (Wohlstand).