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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a society?
Society refers to people who interact in a defined space and share a culture.
What is a sociocultural evolution?
The process of change that results from a society's gaining new information, particularly technology (Lenski).
less complex technologically society -> slow change
What are the 5 general types of society distinguished by their technology?
1) Hunting and gathering societies
2) Horticultural and pastoral societies
3) Agrarian societies
4) Industrial societies
5) Post-industrial societies
What are the 4 different kinds of technological determinism?
1) Technology does not determine (bestimmen) societies (people shape technology)
2) Societies do not necessarily evolve (entwickeln) from one to the next (diff. types coexsist)
3) We must recognize the limits of technology; no quick fix (meaning & morality; can create problems/conflicts)
4) We are still depended on our physical environment
What is Karl Marx' social conflict?
It implies the struggle between parts of society over valued resources and involves clashes between social classes.
Capitalism is responsible for social inequalities and problems.
What is meant by Proletariat?
People who provide labour necessary to operate factories and other productive enterprises.

Proletarier können nur durch den Verkauf ihrer Arbeitskraft ihren überwiegenden Lebensunterhalt erzielen.
What are social institutions?
They are major spheres (Bereiche) of social life, or society's subsystems, organized to meet basic human needs (Essenstafel).
What does Marx mean by false consciousness (Bewusstsein)?
It explains social problems grounded in the shortcomings of individuals rather that the flaws (Mängel) of society (Integration/Bildung).
What is the class conflict?
Antagonism (Feindseligkeit) between entire classes over the distirbution of wealth and power in society.
What is class consciousness?
It is the recignition by workers of their unity as a class in opposition to capitalism itself.
What does alienation mean?
It is the experience of isolation resuting from powerlessness (proletarians).
Name the 4 ways in which capitalism alienates workers? (p. 120)
1) Alienation from the act of working (Routine & Wiederholung - turned humans into machines)
2) Alienation from the products of work (für die reichen Konsumer)
3) Alienation from other workers (Fabrikarbeit = wenig companionship)
4) Alienation from human potential (zu wenig gefordert- Fabrik)
How did Weber see modern society?
As a product of new technology, capitalism and new way of thinking (rational).
"Belief and values have transforming power"
How did Weber describe differences in the ways people view the world (2)?
1) Tradition
2) Rationality
What is meant by tradition?
Sentiments and Beliefs passed from generation to pre-industrial) generation - > traditional (r societies are guided by the past.
What is meant by rationality?
deliberate (absichtlich), matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient means (Mittel) to accomplish a particular goal (modern societies)
What is the rationalization of society? (p. 123)
The historical change from tradition to rationality.
What are the 7 traits of rational social organization in today’s social life?
1) Distinctive social institutions
2) Large-scale organizations
3) Specialized tasks
4) Personal discipline
5) Awareness of time
•this in contrast with traditional societies
6) Technical competence
•people are judged on what they are (skills) instead of who they are (Verwandtschaft)
7) Impersonality
What are sturctures (Emile Durkheim)?
Patterns of human behavior = social facts that have an objective reality beyond the lives and perceptions of particular individuals
What does Emile Durkheim mean by “Society is in ourselves”?
Each of us builds a personality by internalizing social facts
What is anomie?
A condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals.
What is mechanical solidarity?
Social bounds, based on shared morality, that unite members of pre-industrial societies .
→ mechanical as in people have an automatic sense of belonging together (likeness)
What is organic solidarity?
Social bounds, based on specialization that unite members of industrial societies.
What is the key dimension of chance?
Society’s expanding division of labor (harte Arbeit)
= specialized economic activity.
What are high-income countries?
Nations with highest overall standards of living . (Germany)
What are middle-income countries?
Nations with a standard living of about average for the world as a whole. (Latin-America)
What are low-income countries?
Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor. (Africa)
What are newly industrializing countrie?
Lower-income countries that are fast becoming high-income ones (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore)