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28 Cards in this Set

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How do sociologists define culture?
They define it as 'designs for living': the living values, beliefs, etc. that constitute (errichten) a people's way of life.
What is a non-material culture?
The intagible (nicht greifbar) world of ideas created by members of a society that span a wide range from altruism (Selbstlos) to zen (Buddhismus)
What is a material culture?
It constitutes the tangible (handfest) things created by members of a society.
How is nature produced?
Through our varying histories and cultures.
What are civilisations?
They refer to the broadest, most comprehensive (umfassend) cultural entities (Instanzen).
-suggests the highest possible cultural groupings
What are the 5 major components of culture?
1) Symbols
2) Language
3) Values
4) Norms
5) Material culture (artefacts)
What are symbols?
Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture. Without them human existence would be meaningless.
What are semiotics?
The study of the symbols and signs, meanings are never inherent in objects but are constructed around them.
What is language?
A system of symbols that allows members of a society to communicate with one another. It sets free human imagination.
What is cultural reproduction?
The process by which one generation passes culture to the next.
What is meant by oral cultural tradition?
Transmission of culture through speech.
What does the Sapir-Worf hypothesis says?
People perceive the world through the cultural lens of language. "I think what I can say"
What is linguistic determinism?
Language shapes the way we think.
What is linguistic relativity?
Distinctions found in one language are not found in another. (how we understand the world)
What is meant by values and beliefs?
Values are the standards people have about what is good and bad. Beliefs are specific statements that people hold to be true.

Values = good/bad
Beliefs = true/false
What are norms?
Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members.
-proscriptive norms: what we should not do
-prescriptive norms: what we should do
What is meant by high culture?
Refers to cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite.
What is a popular culture?
It designates cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population.
What is the cultural capital?
The practices where people can wield power and status because of their education, general cultural awareness and aesthetic preferences.
What is a subculture?
Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population.
What is a counterculture?
Cultural patterns that strongly oppose (ablehnen) those widely accepted within a society.
What are the 3 ways cultural changes are set in motion?
1) Invention (Telephon)
2) Discovery (Radioaktivität)
3) Diffusion (Übermittlung von Culture)
What is ethnocentrism?
The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture. (Chinesen essen mit offenem Mund)
What is cultural relativism?
The practice of judging a culture by its own standards.
What are cultural universals?
Traits that are part of every known culture, e.g. jokes, family.
What is hegemony (Vorherrschaft)?
The means by which a ruling / dominant group wins over a subordinate group through ideas. Encouraging people to accept the existing social order uncritically.
What is cultural hybridization?
The ways in which parts of one culture get recombined with the cultures of another. (USA -european cultures combined)
What is glocalisation?
The ways in which global phenomena are responded to differently in local cultures.