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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Waste products of cellular respiration
carbon dioxide and water
The reactants of photosynthesis
carbon dioxide and water
What provides energy for the rest of the world to function and is at the bottom of the food chain?
Where does photosynthesis in plants take place?
the chloroplasts
Plants have a _____ system that takes up water and moves the water from the roots up through the plant.
Water ends up in the ________ via veins. Then water _______ from the vein.
mesophyll, diffuses
the green tissue in the interior of the leaf
Carbon dioxide enters the leaf and oxygen exits through tiny pores called ______.
hole in the middle of the stomate which can open on close
If there's plenty of water the stomate is _______, if there's not enough water, the stomate is _______.
open, closed
Earth's atmosphere is made up of what three Gases and what percent of each?
Nitrogen 78%
Oxygen 21%
Gas 1%
Water is delivered to the leaves through _______.
Each mesophyll cell has numerous _______.
Membranes in the _______ form the framework where many of the reactions of photosynthesis occur.
Which way does CO2 move in a leaf?
It moves with the concentration gradient from the outside to the inside.
Inside: CO2 is used, drawn down in the leaf
Outside: CO2 is a consistent concentration gradient
Which way does water move in a leaf?
The leaf is wet on the inside, so the water will move from the inside where water is more concentrated to the outside.
Anytime the stomates are open, water is moving ______?
Inside the leaf, H20 is ______? Outside it is less than 1% _____.
plentiful, water vapor
What is the paradox for plants?
Open stomates gain CO2 which is needed for photosynthesis but lose water.
a system of interconnected membranous sacs suspended in the stroma
What is significant about the membrane of chloroplasts?
It has a double membrane.
_____ is both a reactant and a product in photosynthesis.
Product of photosynthesis
3 carbon sugar, often shown as glucose
Photosynthesis is a _________ process, meaning that when water molecules are split apart they are actually oxidized (lose electrons) and CO2 is reduced to sugar as electrons and hydrogen ions are added to it?
redox (oxidation/reduction)
Photosynthesis converts ______ energy to ______ energy.
light, chemical
the steps that convert light energy to chemical energy and produce O2
light reactions
Light is ____ minutes away
pigment that picks up blue violets and reds
chlorophyll a
pigment that picks up the blues and oranges
chlorophyll b
Plants reflect what colors?
greens and yellow greens
______ capture solar energy?
2 reactions involved in photosynthesis?
light and dark
What reactions capture solar energy?
light reactions
Dark reactions make ______ and don't need _____.
carbohydrates, light (can happen anytime)
Light reactions occur where?
in the thylakoid membranes
NADP+ is reduced to NADPH, which is an electron carrier that provides reducing power to the
Calvin Cycle
The Calvin cycle occurs in the _____?
stroma of the chloroplast
a cyclic series of reactions that assembles sugar molecules using CO2 and the energy containing products of light reactions?
Calvin Cycle
What are the products of the Calvin Cycle?
The light reactions generate what other type of energy?
ATP from ADP
the shorter the wavelength of light, the _____ the energy
Pigments are located in the _______?
thylakoid membranes
When isolated pigment molecules absorb light, their excited electrons drop back down and release the excessive energy as _____?
______ (energy) from light reactions is fed into the dark reactions which adds energy for the making of a sugar.
Eventually in photosynthesis, after the dark reactions, the energy is returned back to the _______.
light reactions
Photosynthesis produces what types of sugars?
sugars that are used for respiration (glucose), cellular respiration, cellulose, starch (carbs)
What are the inputs into the Dark Reactions/Calvin Cycle?
Products of the Dark Cycle?
G3P (sugars and carbs), O2 ( actually from the light reactions), ADP+P (recycled) and NADP+ (recycled)
The mechanism that generates ATP in a chloroplast?
The 2 photosystems of photosynthesis and the electron transport chains are all located within the ______ of the chloroplast?
thylakoid membrane
_____ energy is used to drive electrons to the top of the transport chain?
Photosynthesis uses _____ energy, ____ and ____ to make food molecules?
light energy, CO2, and H20
Desert plants (CAM plants) have done what to adapt to dry climates?
They leave stomates closed during the day and only bring in CO2 at night and releases it to the Calvin Cycle during the day, even though the stomata is closed. Light reactions still occur in the sun.
C4 Photosynthesis uses more efficient enzymes that can fix CO2 at _______ concentrations?
C4 plants thrive in what types of climates?
Some plants when adapting to the hot dry climates alter the location of the ______to where it occurs closer to water?
Calvin Cycle
CO2 traps ____ on earth?
radient heat
What is one of the ways to fight CO2?
all of the plant growth