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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the monomer unit of DNA and RNA
Nucleotides contain what three things?
nitrogenous base, 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group
By nitrogenous base it just means that it contains ______?
the only 2 organic molecules that contain nitrogen are:
nucleic acids and proteins
DNA was discovered by?
James D. Watson and Francis Crick with Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins
DNA's structure is what?
a double-stranded helix
DNA is made up of 2 ______ chains.
polynucleotide (many nucleotides)
DNA is joined with ____ bonds between bases?
The base pairs in DNA?
Adenine pairs with Thymine, Guanine pairs with Cytosine
DNA replication is ______ meaning that the new helix has 1 old strand and 2 new?
In DNA replication, the 2 strands _____ and each strand is used as a _____ to produce a new strand?
separate, pattern
DNA replication happens _____ to cell division? New strands form on the ______?
prior, inside
In DNA replication, DNA unwinds to produce a ____?
DNA Replication proceeds in _____ directions?
DNA replication occurs in _____ directions because of the way the two strands complement one another?
_______ make DNA replication happen?
_______ have a special shape that makes them suited to one things only. There was a protein for each job in DNA replication.
Proteins involved in DNA replication and their purpose:
DNA polymerase (enzyme)- adds nucleotides to a growing chain.
DNA ligase joins small fragments into a continuous chain.
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein
DNA is ______ into RNA.
transcribed (copied)
RNA is _______ into protein?
Proteins determine the ______ of an organism? (how fast, slow metabolism is, etc)
DNA Transcription occurs inside the ____ and forms ____ which is then translated into _____?
nucleus, RNA, proteins
Protein construction involves the conversion of a _____ sequence to an ______ sequence?
nucleotide, amino acid
Transcription rewrites _____ code into _____.
3 nucleotides is also known as a _____?
Each codon is = to ____?
an amino acid
There are ____ codons possible?
Some amino acids have _____ codons?
more than one
____ codons correspond to amino acids. There are ___ stop codons that signal the end of translation.
61, 3
____ signals the start of transcription?
There is _____ with codons, meaning that there is more than one codon for some amino acids.
Stages of Transcription and what happens in them?
1. Initiation- RNA polymerase bonds to a promoter.
2. Elongation- RNA nucleotides are added.
3. Termination- RNA polymerase reaches a stop codon & detaches from the template strand.
What is the difference in RNA with the base pairs?
Adenine pairs with uracil instead of thymine.
A _____ codon marks the start of an mRNA message?
_____ brings together the components needed to begin RNA synthesis?
mRNA bonds to _____ at the start proton?
a small ribosome
The addition of amino acids to the polypeptide chain?
Three steps of Elongation and what happens in them?
1.Codon recognition- next tRNA binds to the mRNA
2. Peptide bond formation- joining of new amino acids
3. Translocation- tRNA is released from the ribosome and a new amino acid/tRNA combination move in and takes its place
Three forms of RNA
Messenger RNA (mRNA), Transfer RNA (tRNA), Ribosomes
____ RNA codons for protein sequences?
In Messenger RNA there is _____ instead of thymine.
_____ RNA matches an amino acid codon to a mRNA codon.
Transfer RNA brings in the ______?
amino acids
Transfer RNA works with ____ and the _____? All three of these also work together during _____.
mRNA, ribosome, translation
Ribosomes are _____ (shape)?
Getting the DNA code from the nucleus via the RNA and using that pattern to create the protein that makes you specifically you?
change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
replacement of one nucleotide with another
base substitutions
alter the reading frame of the mRNA so that nucleotides are grouped into different codons
deletions or insertions
Mutations can be ______, which means that they are due to errors in DNA replication or recombination or induced by _____.
spontaneous, mutagens
In high energy radiation, the shorter the wavelength, _____?
the more damaging it is to your cell Ex: UV, gamma --> moves nucleotides around
____ enzymes go up DNA and try to fix it
Repair Enzymes
The only way that mutations are passed on to offspring is if the ____ and the _____ are mutated. The mutations that happen in ____ cells aren't passed on to other generations.
egg, sperm, somatic
Genetic material (DNA/RNA) surrounded by a protein coat
_____ proteins (in the tail fibers) binds to receptors on a host's target cell.
With most viruses, the ______ cell is destroyed, and newly replicated viruses are released to continue the infection.
Two types of reproductive cycles in viruses?
1. Lytic cycle
2. Lysogenic cycle
Why aren't viruses considered alive?
They can't reproduce without a host cell.
In the _____ cycle, viral parts are produced using host organelles. The host lyses, breaks down and viruses are released which makes their own proteins instead of your own.
In the _____ cycle, Viral DNA is inserted into the host chromosome. Viral DNA is duplicated during mitosis along with the host chromosome.
_____ signals can switch a virus from the lysogenic cycle to the lytic cycle.
a virus that infects a bacteria
Once it's inside the cell and part of the chromosome is incorporated into the host DNA is known as?
DNA and RNA have a ________ backbone?
There is ____bonding between the phosphate and the sugar?