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31 Cards in this Set

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In August 1846, Representative David Wilmot, a northern Democrat, proposed the ______ _______. This said that in any territory the United States gained from Mexico, slavery would not exist. Southerners were outraged by the Wilmot Proviso. It passed in the House of Representatives, but the Senate refused to vote on it.
Wilmot Proviso
Senator _____ ____ of ________ proposed a solution to
the issue of slavery in the territories. He suggested
the idea of _______ ___________. This meant that the
citizens of each new territory would decide whether
or not slavery was permitted
Lewis Cass of Michigan; popular sovereignty
this party opposed the spread of slavery into the western territories
Free-Soil Party
The discovery of gold in California brought thousands
of new settlers to the territory. By the end of 1849, nearly 80,000 “_____-______” had arrived in the territory in search of gold
Forty-Niners
The __________ __ ____ included concessions by both the North and the South. California was admitted to the Union as a free state. The rest of the Mexican Cession would have no restrictions on slavery. The Texas/New Mexico border question was solved in favor of New Mexico, but the federal government took on Texas’s debts. The slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia, but not slavery. Congress could not interfere with the domestic slave trade.
The federal government passed a new fugitive slave
law.
Compromise of 1850
_______ ______ helped more than 300 slaves escape to freedom on the Underground Railroad, including her own parents. Slave owners offered $40,000 for her capture.
Harriet Tubman
_____ ____ _____, written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, ran as a serial in an antislavery newspaper and then came out in book form in 1852. Stowe’s writings about an enslaved African American and his overseer changed Northern outlooks on African Americans and slavery
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
___________ tried to have the novel banned. They accused Stowe of writing falsehoods in her portrayal of slavery. The book sold millions of copies and had a great effect on public opinion. Many historians say it was one of the causes of the Civil War
Southerners
The ________ _____ ___ hurt the Southern cause because it created hostility toward slavery among Northerners who had previously been indifferent toward it. Under this act, an African American accused of being a runaway was arrested and brought to a federal commissioner. A sworn statement saying the captive was an escaped slave, or testimony by a white witness, was all a court needed to send the person south
Fugitive Slave Act
_______ _________ accused of being fugitives had no rights to a trial and were not allowed to testify in court. A person who refused to help capture a fugitive slave could be ______
African Americans; jailed
Whites and free African Americans helped runaway
slaves through the ___________ ________. Members called “__________” secretly transported runaways to freedom in the Northern states or Canada. They gave the runaways food and shelter along the way. A famous conductor was _______ ______. She was a runaway slave who continually risked going into the slave states to help free enslaved persons
Underground Railroad; conductors; Harriet Tubman
________________ ________ was needed to connect the West Coast to the rest of the country. It would make travel to the West Coast quicker and it would increase the growth of territories on its route
Transcontinental railroad
Southerners wanted a southern route for the railroad, but the route would have to go through northern Mexico. James Gadsden was sent by the U.S. government to buy the land from Mexico. In 1853 Mexico agreed to accept $10 million for the territory known as the _______ ________. This strip of land is today the southern part of Arizona and New Mexico
Gadsden Purchase
The ______-________ ___ divided the region into two territories—Kansas on the south and Nebraska on the north. Northerners were outraged by this bill that broke the Missouri Compromise promise to limit the spread of slavery. The act was passed by Congress anyway in May 1854.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
In 1856 Kansas became the scene of a territorial civil war between pro-slavery and antislavery settlers. It became known as “________ ______” because of all the violence
Bleeding Kansas
__________ _____ was officially organized at a convention in Michigan in July 1854. Members did agree that slavery should be kept out of the territories
Republican Party
At the same time, the American Party, better known as the ____-________, made great gains
Know-Nothings
____ _____ was an enslaved man whose Missouri slaveholder had taken him to live in free territory before returning to Missouri. Abolitionists helped Scott sue to end his slavery. Scott argued that the time he spent in free territory meant he was free
Dred Scott
The case ____ _____ vs ________ went to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled against Dred Scott because, in the opinion of the court, the founders of the nation had not intended African Americans to be citizens. The Dred Scott ruling intensified sectional differences
Dred Scott v. Sandford
In 1858 _______ _______ was chosen by the Illinois Republicans to run for the Senate against the Democratic incumbent, _______ _ _______. Lincoln and Douglas held a series of debates. Lincoln opposed the spread of slavery to the western territories. Douglas favored popular sovereignty.
Abraham Lincoln; Stephen A. Douglas
_______ was elected Senator
Douglas
John Brown, a fervent abolitionist, planned to seize the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (today West Virginia). He would then free and arm the enslaved people in the area and begin an _____________, or rebellion, against slaveholders
insurrection
Brown and his followers seized the arsenal on October 16, 1859, but within __ _____ were captured by the U.S. Marines. Brown was tried, convicted, and sentenced to death
36 hours
Many Northerners viewed _____as a martyr for the slaves’ cause
Brown
The Democratic Party could not agree on a candidate for the 1860 election. Northern Democrats chose Stephen A. Douglas, who supported popular sovereignty. Southern Democrats chose ____ _ ____________. He supported the Dred Scott decision and a federal slave code for the western territories
John C. Breckenridge
The Constitutional Union Party was formed by people who wanted to uphold the Constitution and the Union. Their candidate was former Tennessee senator ____ ____
John Bell
The Republican candidate was _______ _______
Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln won the election. The South saw his election as a victory for the abolitionists. _____ ________ was the first state to secede
South Carolina
Seceding states met, and on February 8, 1861, declared themselves to be the Confederate States of America, or the ___________
Confederacy
_________ _____ of Mississippi was chosen president of the Confederacy
Jefferson Davis
Lincoln announced plans to resupply Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy ordered an attack on the fort. After hours of fighting, the Union commander surrendered. This was the beginning of the _____ ___
Civil War