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79 Cards in this Set

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In 1789 Congress created the __________ __ _____, the __________ __ ___ ________, the __________ __ ___, and the ______ __ ___ ________ _______
Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of War, and the Office of the Attorney General
President George Washington chose ______ _________ as secretary of state. Alexander Hamilton became head of the ________ __________. General Henry Knox served as _________ __ ___, and Edmund Randolph became the first ________ _______. This group of department heads who advised the president became known as the ________
Thomas Jefferson; Treasury Department; secretary of war; attorney general; cabinet
The judicial branch as well as the first federal judges were established. ____ ___ became the first chief justice of the United States
John Jay
In 1791, 10 amendments to the Constitution went into effect. These amendments are known as the ____ __ ______
Bill of Rights
The _____ _____ __________ offered safeguards for individual rights against actions of the federal government
first eight amendments
The _____ _________ states that people have rights other than the ones listed
Ninth Amendment
The _____ _________ states that any powers not specifically listed to the federal government would be reserved for the states
Tenth Amendment
By the end of 1789, the government needed additional monies to continue to operate. _____ _______ and _________ ________ came up with two very different plans to help the government with its finances
James Madison and Alexander Hamilton
James Madison felt the government should raise money by taxing imports from other countries. The ______ __ ____ made all importers pay five percent of the valueof their cargo when they landed in the United States. Shippers were also required
to pay a tax depending on how much their ships carried. This angered many Southern planters. They began feeling the government did not have their best interests in mind
Tariff of 1789
Alexander Hamilton supported the tariff, but he felt the government also needed the ability to ______ _____
borrow money
To finance the Revolutionary War, the Confederation Congress had issued ______, or paper notes promising to repay money within a certain amount of time with interest. Hamilton wanted to accept these debts at full value, believing the bond owners would then have a stake in the success of the government and be willing to lend money in the future
bonds
The opposition, led by Madison, felt that Hamilton’s plan was unfair to farmers and war veterans who had sold their bonds to ___________—people willing to take a risk with the hope of future financial gain
speculators
Southerners were upset because Northerners owned the bonds while most of the tax money used to pay off the debt would come from the South. In 1790 Southerners were convinced to vote for _________ ____ in return for the relocation of the United States capital to a southern location called the ________ __ ________
Hamilton’s plan; District of Columbia
________ asked Congress to create a national bank so that the government could manage its debts and interest payments. The bank would also give loans to the government and individuals and issue paper money. The paper money would in turn encourage trade and investments and stimulate economic growth
Hamilton
Objections to the bank came from Southerners, who felt only the Northerners could afford the bank’s stock. Madison felt Congress could not establish a bank because it was not within the federal government’s __________ ______, or powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution
enumerated powers
The Bank of the United States was passed after Hamilton argued that the “necessary and proper” clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution created _______ ______, or powers not specifically listed in the Constitution but necessary for the government to do its job
implied powers
In 1791 Hamilton’s proposed tax on the manufacture of American whiskey passed in Congress. Western farmers were outraged by the tax, and in 1794 the ______ _________ began. Washington sent in __,___ troops to stop the rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion; 13,000
The split in Congress over Hamilton’s financial plan resulted in the formation of two _________ _______
political parties
The ___________, led by Hamilton, wanted a strong national government in the hands of the wealthy. They believed in manufacturing and trade as the basis of wealth and power. ________, _________, _____________, and _______ supported the Federalist Party. Supporters included _____ _______ and _______ _______
Federalists; Artisans, merchants, manufacturers, and bankers; urban workers and Eastern farmers
Madison and Jefferson led the __________-___________. Their party was referred to as the ___________ and later became the _________
Democratic-Republicans; Republicans; Democrats
Jefferson and the Republicans believed the strength of the United States came from its ___________ _______
independent farmers
His ideas were referred to as ___________, or the belief that owning land enabled people to become independent. The group supported agriculture over trade and commerce. They favored the rights of states against the power of the federal government. The rural South and West tended to support Republicans
agrarianism
The civil war in France, known as the ______ __________, began shortly after George Washington was inaugurated in 1789. Americans were divided over the French Revolution. ___________ opposed it because of the violence. ___________ supported it because of the fight for liberty
French Revolution; Federalists; Republicans
In 1793 France declared war on Britain. The war between Britain and France forced Washington to issue a proclamation stating that the United States would remain ________ and _________ between the two countries
friendly and impartial
The British navy intercepted _______ _____, including American ships, carrying goods to French ports
neutral ships
Wanting to avoid war, Washington sent ____ ___ to Britain to find a solution. ____ ______ gave Britain the right to seize American cargo headed for French ports. In exchange, Britain agreed to give the United States ____-_______ ______ status. This meant that American merchants would not be discriminated against when they traded with Britain. The treaty prevented war with Great Britain and protected the American economy.
John Jay; Jay’s Treaty; most-favored nation
Jay’s Treaty raised concerns in Spain that the British and Americans might join forces to take over Spain’s North American holdings. Thomas Pinckney negotiated with Spain, resulting in ________ ______, signed by the Spanish in 1795. The treaty gave the United States the right to navigate the Mississippi and to deposit goods at the port of New Orleans. Western farmers supported the treaty
Pinckney’s Treaty
Americans moved in large numbers to the area between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River because of abundant land, fertile soil, wide rivers, and a variety of fish and game. The increase of white settlers led to tension with ______ _________
Native Americans
______ ______, a chief of the Miami people of the Northwest Territory, formed a confederacy of several Native American groups against the white settlers. After two battles in which American troops were defeated, Native American resistance was put down by American troops under _______ _______ _____
Little Turtle; General Anthony Wayne
In 1795, 12 Native American nations signed the ______ __ __________. The Native Americans gave up parts of what later became Ohio and Indiana in exchange for a yearly payment of $__,___ from the federal government. As a result of the treaty, even more settlers moved into the region
Treaty of Greenville; $10,000
___________ ________ _______ included advice to the American people to avoid sectionalism, or the dividing of the country into North against South or East against West. He also warned against political parties and becoming too attached to any foreign nation
Washington’s Farewell Address
In 1796 the country’s first openly contested election was held. The Federalists promoted ____ _____, while the Republicans supported ______ _________. ____ _____ won the election 71 to 68
John Adams; Thomas Jefferson; John Adams
The French, angry over Jay’s Treaty, stopped American ships and seized goods while en route to Britain. Federalists called for war against France. Instead Adams sent negotiators to France. Tension increased as France demanded bribes from the Americans before they would negotiate, in what became known as the ___ ______
XYZ Affair
In 1798 Congress suspended trade with France and ordered the navy to capture French ships. The undeclared war at sea was called the _____-___
Quasi-War
New negotiations with France led to an agreement in 1800. The Convention of 1800 gave up all United States claims against France for damages to American shipping. In return, France released United States from the treaty of 1778. The _____-___ ended
Quasi-War
The Federalists pushed four laws through Congress known as the _____ and _________ ____. The first three laws were aimed at ______—people living in the country who are not citizens. The laws stated that immigrants could not become citizens for __ _____. This weakened Republican support since most immigrants from ______ and _______ tended to vote Republican. The laws also gave the president the power to deport without trial any alien that seemed dangerous to the United States
Alien and Sedition Acts; aliens; 14 years; France and Ireland
The fourth law prevented ________, or incitement to rebellion. It made it unlawful to say or print anything false or scandalous against the government or its officers
sedition
In 1798 and 1799, the Republican legislatures of ________ and ________ passed resolutions criticizing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Written secretly by _________ and _______, the resolutions stated that because states created the Constitution, they had the power to judge whether a federal law was unconstitutional
Kentucky and Virginia; Jefferson and Madison
The ________ ___________ introduced interposition, arguing that if the federal government did something unconstitutional, the state could interpose between the federal government and the people and stop the illegal action
Virginia Resolutions
The ________ ___________ advanced the theory of nullification. This theory states that if the federal government passed an unconstitutional law, the states had the right to nullify the law or declare it invalid
Kentucky Resolutions
The election of 1800 was closely contested and revealed a flaw in the system for selecting a president. Each state chooses electors who cast two votes, one for president and one for vice president. In the election of 1800, two candidates, ______ _________ and _____ ____, each had the same number of electoral votes. According to the Constitution, the _____ __ _______________ votes for president when there is a tie
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr; House of Representatives
Hamilton urged his followers in the Federalist Party to vote for _________, leading to another tie in the House. Finally, in February 1801, Jefferson promised to not dismantle Hamilton’s financial system. Jefferson won the presidency by ___ ____
Jefferson; one vote
The election of 1800 proved that despite disagreements between political parties, power in the United States could be __________ ___________
peacefully transferred
Thomas Jefferson had a less ______ _____ of presidency. Instead of overturning all of the Federalist’s policies, he tried to integrate __________ _____ into policies that the Federalists had already put in place
formal style; Republican ideas
He began ______ ___ ___ _______ ____, ___ ________ ________, and ___ ____ ____ ___ ______ ___. He planned to use _____ _______ instead of a standing army
paying off the federal debt, cut government spending, and did away with the whiskey tax; local militia
The _________ ___ __ ____, passed by the Federalist majority, created 16 new federal judges. Before leaving office, Adams appointed ___________ to these positions
Judiciary Act of 1801; Federalists
Jefferson and the Republicans were unhappy that Federalists controlled the courts. After Jefferson took office, Congress repealed the ________ ___ __ ____, doing away with the “________ ______” and their offices
Judiciary Act of 1801; midnight judges
The impeachment of _______ ______ _____ established clear guidelines that judges could not be removed from office simply because Congress disagreed with their decisions
Justice Samuel Chase
John Adams had chosen ____ ________ as Chief Justice. He served for 34 years and was responsible for making the _______ _____ a powerful independent branch of the federal government
John Marshall; Supreme Court
The Supreme Court was a very minor body until the 1803 case of _______ __ _______. The ruling strengthened the Supreme Court because it asserted the Court’s right of _______ ______—the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional and to strike down laws that were not
Marbury v. Madison; judicial review
________ supported the idea of expanding the country farther west, believing that a republic could survive only if most people owned their own land
Jefferson
In 1800 French leader ________ _________ convinced Spain to give Louisiana back to France in exchange for helping Spain take control of part of Italy. Jefferson ordered ______ __________, his ambassador to France, to block the deal or at least gain concessions for the United States
Napoleon Bonaparte; Robert Livingston
By 1803 Napoleon began plans to conquer Europe. Short on funds, Napoleon agreed to sell the Louisiana Territory as well as New Orleans to the United States. On April 30, 1803, the United States purchased Louisiana from France for $__ _______. The _________ ________ doubled the size of the United States
$15 million; Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson had secretly funded an expedition into the Louisiana Territory led by __________ _____ and _______ _____. _________, a Shoshone woman, joined them and became their guide and interpreter. The trip increased American knowledge of the Louisiana Territory and gave the United States a claim to the Oregon territory along the coast
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark; Sacagawea
In 1805 _______ ____ explored much of the upper Mississippi, the Arkansas River, and Colorado. The trip provided Americans with their first detailed description of the _____ ______ and the _____ _________
Zebulon Pike; Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains
While the South and West gained political strength through the new states, many New England Federalists felt their region was losing influence. A small group of Federalists, known as the _____ _____, wrote a plan to take New England out of the Union
Essex Junto
Wanting to add New York to the movement, the Essex Junto asked Aaron Burr to run for governor of ___ ____. Alexander Hamilton criticized Burr in a published document. Enraged, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton agreed but refused to fire. Burr shot and killed Hamilton
New York
During his second term in office, Jefferson focused on keeping the United States out of the war between _______ and ______
Britain and France
At first, the war benefited Americans as merchants began trading with French colonies in the _________. The British left the American ships alone because the United States had proclaimed __________
Caribbean; neutrality
Americans were caught in the middle, however, when Britain declared that ships going to Europe needed _______ ________ and when Napoleon declared merchants who obeyed this would have their goods ___________ when they reached Europe
British licenses; confiscated
___________, a legalized form of kidnapping, was the solution Britain came up with to stop sailors from deserting and going on American ships.
Impressment
In 1807 tensions mounted when the British warship Leopard stopped the American warship _________ to search for British deserters. The Chesapeake refused, and three Americans were killed
Chesapeake
The attack angered the American public. Anti-British mobs rioted. To avoid war, Jefferson asked Congress to pass an _______, or a government ban on trade with other countries. This ended up hurting the United States more than France or Britain. The embargo was repealed in ____
embargo; 1809
In 1808 _____ _______ easily defeated Charles Pinckney to become the next president. He took office in the midst of an international crisis that threatened the United States
James Madison
Madison hoped to avoid war. To get the British to stop seizing American ships, Madison asked Congress to pass the ___-__________ ___, which banned trade with France and England while authorizing the president to reopen trade with whichever country removed its restrictions first. This plan to play France against England failed
Non-Intercourse Act
The plan known as ______ ____ ______ ___ reopened trade with both Britain and France, but if either country dropped restrictions on trade, the United States would stop importing goods from the other nation
Macon’s Bill Number Two
Napoleon announced that France would no longer restrict American trade, but it would still _____ ________ _____. Madison hoped this would force the British into dropping their trade restrictions. Britain refused, forcing Congress to pass a nonimportation act against Britain. In 1812 Britain finally ended all restrictions on American trade. Two days later, however, the United States Congress ________ ___ __ _____ _______
seize American ships; declared war on Great Britain
Most members of Congress that voted for war were from the South and West. They were nicknamed the ___ _____ by their opponents. The Americans in the South and West favored war because British trade restrictions had hurt Southern planters and
Western farmers. They also felt the British were to blame for the clashes with Native Americans
War Hawks
The increasing demands of speculators and settlers sparked Native American resistance. ________, a Shawnee leader, wanted the Native Americans to unite to protect their lands
Tecumseh
_______ _____ ________, governor of the Indiana territory, prepared to stop Tecumseh’s movement. The Battle of Tippecanoe had no clear winner, but it shattered Native American confidence in their leadership. Tecumseh and others fled to _______-____ ______. This added to the belief that the British were supporting and arming the Native Americans
William Henry Harrison; British-held Canada
The Republican-led Congress declared war, but the country was not ready to fight. __________ _____ and _________, a ________ ____ ___ ___ ______, and ________ ________ all added to the problems. Madison ordered the military to invade Canada anyway
Insufficient troops and equipment, a division over the war itself, and financial concerns
All three American attacks against ______ failed
Canada
The next year, _________ ______ _____ secretly arranged for the construction of a fleet on the coast of Lake Erie. On September 10, 1813, the fleet attacked the British fleet on Lake Erie. Britain surrendered. Later, the Canadian militia stopped an American attack from the east at the ______ __ _____ _____. By the end of 1813, the United States had not conquered any territory in Canada
Commodore Oliver Perry; Battle of Stony Creek
In 1814 a British fleet landed troops near Washington, D.C. The capital was seized, and Madison and other officials fled. The _____ _____ an the _______ were both set on fire. The next British attack was on _________. they were ready, and the British abandoned their attack
The White House and the Capitol; Baltimore
That same month, British soldiers moved into ___ ____. American naval forces defeated the British fleet. The British retreated to ________
New York; Montreal
New England’s opposition to the war increased. The ________ __________ called for several constitutional amendments that would increase New England’s political power
Hartford Convention
In 1815 a British fleet landed near New Orleans. The American commander, _______ ______ _______, had troops use cotton bales to absorb British bullets. The result was an American victory. The ______ __ ___ _______ made Andrew Jackson a hero and destroyed the __________ _____. ___________, the feeling of strong patriotism, was strong in the United States
General Andrew Jackson; Battle of New Orleans; Federalist Party; Nationalism
On December 24, 1814, in the European city of Ghent, negotiators signed the ______ __ _____, ending the war of 1812. The treaty restored prewar boundaries but did not mention neutral rights, and no territory changed hands
Treaty of Ghent
The ___ __ ____ increased American prestige overseas and created a new feeling of patriotism and national unity
War of 1812