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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
In November 1777, the Continental Congress adopted the ________ __ _____________ ___ _________ _____
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union
a plan for a loose union of the states under Congress
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union
The Articles of Confederation had the power to _______ ___, _____ ______, and ____ ________. It, however, did not have the power to ______ _____ or ________ _____.
declare war, raise armies, and sign treaties; impose taxes or regulate trade
Congress set up the _________ _________ as a basis for governing land west of the Appalachian Mountains
Northwest Ordinance
The ordinance created a new territory north of the ____ _____ and east of the ___________ _____. When the population of a territory reached _____, it could apply to become a state.
Ohio River; Mississippi River; 60,000
After the Revolutionary War, British merchants flooded American markets with inexpensive British goods. This drove many American ________ out of business
artisans
American states imposed ______, or taxes, on imported goods
duties
The states did not all impose the same duties, however, so the British would land their goods at states with the ______ _____ or ____________
lowest taxes or restrictions
The end of the Revolutionary War and the slowdown of economic activity with Britain caused a severe _________ in the United States
recession
_____ _________ broke out in Massachusetts in 1786. It started when the government of Massachusetts decided to raise taxes to pay off its debt instead of issuing paper money
Shays’s Rebellion
The taxes were worst for _______, especially those in the western part of the state. Those who could not pay their taxes and other debts lost their farms. Farmers rebelled by shutting _______ ___________. The rebellion, led by Daniel Shays, included about 1,200 farmers. They went to a state arsenal to get weapons. A government militia defended the arsenal against the rebels, killing four farmers
farmers; county courthouses; Daniel Shays; 1,200
Many Americans began to see the risk of having a ____ _______ __________. They called for a change in government
weak central government
People who supported a stronger central government were called ____________.
nationalists
______ __________, ________ ________, _____ _______, and _________ ________ were among the prominent nationalists
George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton
________ suggested that a convention of states be set up to revise the Articles of Confederation
Hamilton
All states, except _____ ______, sent delegates to the Constitutional Convention held in Philadelphia in 1787
Rhode Island
Most of the 55 delegates to the Constitutional Convention had experience in government. ______ __________ was presiding officer. _____ _______ kept records of the debates. The meetings were closed to the public to make sure that the delegates were free to discuss issues without political pressure
George Washington; James Madison
This plan proposed throwing out the Articles of Confederation and creating a new national government with the power to make laws binding upon the states and to raise its own money through taxes
Virginia Plan
______ ________ introduced the Virginia Plan
Edmund Randolph
The Virginia Plan also called for a national government made up of three branches of government:
legislative, executive, and judicial
The Virginia Plan proposed that the legislature be divided into ___ ______.
two houses
Voters in each state would elect members of the _____ _____.
first house
Members of the second house would be elected by the _____ _____.
first house
The Virginia Plan benefited states with _____ ___________ because in both houses, the number of representatives for each state would reflect the population of that state
large populations
This plan revised the Articles of Confederation to make the central government stronger
New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan was proposed by _______ ________
William Paterson
The delegates of the Constitutional Convention were divided ______________. The small states wanted changes that would protect them against the big states. Northern and Southern states were divided over the issue of slavery in the new constitution
geographically
_____ ______ of ___________ proposed a compromise known as the __________ __________
Roger Sherman of Connecticut; Connecticut Compromise
The Connecticut Compromise is also referred to as the _____ __________
Great Compromise
The compromise proposed two houses of Congress:
the House of Representatives and the Senate
Representation in the House of Representative would be based on the ______ __________
states’ population
Each state in the Senate would have ____ ______________
equal representation
The _____-______ __________ came up with a plan for counting enslaved people in a state. Every five enslaved people in a state would count as three free persons for determining both representation and taxes
Three-Fifths Compromise
The Constitution was based on the principle of _______ ___________
popular sovereignty
rule by the people
popular sovereignty
The Constitution created a system of government called __________. This divided the government between the _______, or _______ __________, and the ____ ___________
federalism; federal, or national government, and the state governments
The Constitution provided for a __________ __ ______ among the three branches of government
separation of powers
The __________ ______ makes the laws. The _________ ______ enforces the laws. The _______ ______ interprets federal laws
legislative branch; executive branch; judicial branch
The Constitution provides for a system of ______ and ________ to prevent any one of the three branches of government from becoming too powerful
checks and balances
The powers of the President include:
- proposing legislation
- appointing judges
- putting down rebellions
- the ability to veto, or reject, legislation
The powers of the legislative branch include the ability to:
override the veto with a two-thirds vote in both houses
Congress can _______, or formally accuse of misconduct, and then remove the president or any high official in the executive or judicial branch
impeach
The Constitution has a system for making __________, or changes to the Constitution
amendments
There is a ___-____ _______ for amending the Constitution
two-step process
The two step process for amending the Constitution:
proposal and ratification
People who supported the Constitution were called ___________
Federalists
Supporters of the Federalists and the new Constitution included:
- large landowners
- merchants and artisans from large coastal cities
- farmers who lived near the coast or along rivers that led to the coast
Opponents to the Constitution were called _______________
Antifederalists
Many opponents believed the new Constitution should include a ____ __ ______. Many opposed the Constitution because they thought it endangered the ____________ of the states
bill of rights; independence
Antifederalists included:
- prominent American leaders
- western farmers living far from the coast
A collection of 85 essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in "___ _________" summarized the Federalists’ arguments for ratification
The Federalist
James Madison is regarded as the “______ __ ___ ____________” because of his ideas and contribution to this document
Father of the Constitution
The first state conventions took place in ________ ____ and _______ ____. Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, and Connecticut quickly ________ the
Constitution.
December 1787 and January 1788; ratified
In order to get the Constitution ratified in Massachusetts, Federalists promised to add a ____ __ ______ to the Constitution once it was ratified and to support an amendment that would reserve for the states all powers not specifically granted to the federal government.
bill of rights
Many feared that without the support of ________ and ___ ____, the new federal government would not succeed. Virginia ratified the Constitution when the Federalists agreed to add a bill of rights. New York agreed to ratify the Constitution after it learned that Virginia and New Hampshire had ratified it. New York did not want to operate independently of all of the surrounding states
Virginia and New York