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44 Cards in this Set

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In 1519 the Spanish government asked ______ ______ to lead an expedition to the Yucatán Peninsula to find new people who could be forced to work on the farms and Mines of Cuba. He also wanted to investigate reports of a wealthy civilization there
Hernán Cortés
Equipped with ______, _________, ____, and _______, the Spanish had a technological advantage over the people they encountered in the Yucatán Peninsula
swords, crossbows, guns, and cannons
After learning that the Aztec were at war with many groups in the region, Cortés recruited the help of the _________ people against the Aztec.
Tlaxcalan
Montezuma, the Aztec leader, failed to stop the Spanish
advance, and Cortés marched into ____________, the capital of the Aztec empire
Tenochtitlán
After destroying Tenochtitlán, Cortés ordered a new city, named ______, to be built in its place
Mexico
Mexico became the capital of the Spanish colony of ___ _____
New Spain
Cortés sent other expeditions into what is present-day ______ and _______ _______
Mexico and Central America
The people who led the expeditions became known as
_____________, or “__________.”
conquistadors; conquerors
One conquistador, _________ _______, explored Peru and conquered the Inca empire
Francisco Pizarro
The Spanish gave the name ___ _____ to the territory north of New Spain
New Mexico
They built ________, or forts, throughout the region as trading posts and protection for the settlers
presidios
Spanish priests also built missions throughout the region to spread the Christian faith among the ______ ________ ______ there
Native American people
A person’s position in society was determined by _____, ______, and _________
birth, income, and education
The highest level of society consisted of the ____________. Below this level were the ________. Next were the _______. The lowest level of society included ______ _________, ________, and people mixed of _______ and _______ or _______ and ______ ________ ancestry
peninsulares; criollos; mestizos; Native Americans, Africans; Spanish and African or African and Native American
In 1524 the French king sent ________ __ _________ to map the North American coastline
Giovanni da Verrazano
The king was interested in finding the _________ _______
Northwest Passage
_______ _______ discovered and mapped the St. Lawrence River
Jacques Cartier
In 1663 ___ ______ became a royal colony
New France
_____ ______ and _______ _________ explored the Mississippi River. ____-______ ________ __ __ _____ then followed the river to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the region, which he named Louisiana, for France
Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette; René-Robert Cavelier de La Salle
In England the Reformation involved a disagreement between King Henry VIII and the pope, who refused to annul the king’s marriage. The king then broke with the Church and declared himself the head of the ________ ______
Anglican Church
The English merchants needed new markets for their surplus wool. Many organized _____ _____ _________, pooling the money of many investors for large projects, such as establishing colonies
joint-stock companies
After England emerged as the leading Protestant power and Spain the leading Catholic power, the two countries became _______
enemies
When the Spanish tried to check the spread of Protestantism in the Netherlands, which was part of the Spanish empire, the _____ rebelled
Dutch
____ _____, a Jamestown colonist, developed a strain of tobacco that was marketable in England. The _________ settlers soon began growing large quantities of tobacco for profit.
John Rolfe; Jamestown
To attract more settlers to Jamestown, the Virginia Company gave the colony the right to elect its own _______ _________. The elected representatives were called _________, and the legislative body was called the _____ __ _________
general assembly; burgesses; House of Burgesses
The Virginia Company also introduced the system of __________. Under this system, new settlers who bought a share in the company or paid for their passage were granted 50 acres. They received more land for each family member or servant they brought to Virginia
headrights
Catholics were persecuted in _______ for their beliefs
England
____ _________, a Catholic member of Parliament, decided to found a colony in America where Catholics could practice their religion without persecution
Lord Baltimore
In 1608 one group of Separatists, who became known as Pilgrims, fled to _______. Unhappy there, they decided to immigrate to America.
Holland
The Pilgrims set sail for America on the _________ in 1620 and settled in ________, near Massachusetts Bay
Mayflower; Plymouth
Under the leadership of William Bradford, the Pilgrims began constructing homes immediately after their arrival. A plague swept through the colony, killing many settlers. The remaining settlers survived in large part because of the assistance of a Native American named _______, who taught them how to use the environment to meet their needs
Squanto
A depression in England’s wool industry caused high unemployment, particularly among Puritans. John Winthrop and other wealthy Puritans held stock in the Massachusetts Bay Company, which had received a charter from King Charles to establish a colony in ___ _______
New England
Roger Williams, a strict Separatist, challenged Puritan authority in Massachusetts. In 1635 the General Court banned him from the colony. Williams headed south, where he founded the town of __________. The government there had no authority in religious matters, and religious differences were tolerated.
Providence
Anne Hutchinson was declared a heretic and banished from Massachusetts for her challenge of Puritan practices. She and her followers also headed south and founded the town of __________
Portsmouth
________ ______ ______ opposed the Massachusetts government’s policy of allowing only church members to vote.
Reverend Thomas Hooker
Reverend Thomas Hooker and his followers left Massachusetts and founded the town of ________, in the Connecticut River valley.
Hartford
Hartford and two other towns in the region joined together to create their own General Court. They adopted a constitution known as the ___________ ______ __ ___________— the first written constitution of the American colonies
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Conflicts between Charles I and the English Parliament intensified when the king sent troops into Parliament to arrest several Puritan leaders. Parliament, with mostly Puritan members, then organized its own army, and the English Civil War began. The Parliament’s army defeated and captured the king in 1646. ______ ________, the head of Parliament’s army, disbanded Parliament and seized power for himself
Oliver Cromwell
Maryland’s governor and proprietor supported the king against Parliament, which led to a Protestant rebellion in that colony. To appease the Protestants, Lord Baltimore appointed a Protestant governor and enacted the ________ __________ ___. The act, which was intended to protect the Catholic minority from the Protestants, granted religious toleration to all Christians
Maryland Toleration Act
In 1609 Dutch merchants hired an English navigator named Henry Hudson to find a route through North America to the Pacific. Hudson explored the Hudson River valley, and the merchants claimed the region for the Dutch, calling it ___ __________. The Dutch established New Amsterdam, their major settlement, on Manhattan Island
New Netherland
Because fur trade was the major activity in New Netherland, the colony grew slowly. To increase the colony’s population, the Dutch opened settlement in the colony to anyone who wanted to buy land there. By 1664 the colony consisted of more than 10,000 people from many parts of Europe. ________ ________ arrived in New Netherland in the 1620s.
Enslaved Africans
In 1680 William Penn, a friend of King Charles II and a Quaker, received a land grant between ___ _____ and ________. Penn intended this land as a refuge for Quakers, who were persecuted for their beliefs by the government and others
New York and Maryland
Quakers believed that religion was a personal experience that did not need churches or ministers. They objected to all political and religious authority and advocated ________—opposition to war or violence as a means of resolving conflict
pacifism
_____ __________ started the colony of Georgia. He established the colony as a place for English debtors to start over rather than to be imprisoned for their debts. The colony attracted settlers from all over Europe. Georgia became a royal colony in the mid-1700s, when control of the colony reverted back to the king
James Oglethorpe