Protestant Reformation Outline

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Protestant Reformation occurred during conflict between nation-states in Europe
•First in imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland
•Deep social and political divisions
•Certain groups favored the reformation - like printers who were literate

POPULAR RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS AND CRITICISM OF THE CHURCH
•The reformation could not have happened without the numerous conflicts that had risen within the church during the Renaissance.
•Diet of Worms (Germany) presented the emperor with 102 oppressive church burdens and abuses
•Urban laypeople were more knowledgeable about the world around them
•Lay religious movements had one common goal: Religious simplicity in the imitation of Jesus.
•Egalitarian church - gives members and head of church power
•Spiritual
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•Diet adjourned with the order of all Lutherans to convert back to Catholicism
•Lutherans responded with the Schmalkaldic League - took Augsburg Confession (statement of Protestant beliefs) as its banner
•Luther drew up Schmalkaldic Articles
•Expansion of the Reformation
•German Lutherans formed regional bodies to create new churches
•Educational reforms
•Reformation was introduced to Denmark by King Christian II, where it thrived under Frederick I
•Under Christian III Lutheranism became the official state religion
•Sweden - King Gustavus Vasa embraced Lutheranism and subjected church authority to the Diet of Vesteras
•Poland was split between Lutherans, Anabaptists, Calvinists, and Antitrinitarians
•Reaction Against Protestants
•Charles V tried to enforce a compromise between Protestants and Catholics
•Turned to a military solution
•Established puppet rulers in Saxony and Hesse, and issued imperial law that Protestants had to return to Catholicism
•The Peace of Augsburg
•Charles reinstated Protestant leaders and guaranteed Lutherans religious freedoms in the Peace of Passau - surrendering his request for religious unity
•Peace of Augsburg made division of Christendom permanent
•Ruler of a land could determine its
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•Number of clergy fell by 2/3 and there were fewer religious holidays
•Number of churches was reduces and sermons and worship were in the vernacular
•Indulgences and shrines were gone, venerating saints and relics became a crime
•Luther's New Testament was present in many homes, studied individually
•Almost 1/2 of the original converts returned to the Catholic Church before the 17th century
•The Reformation and Education
•There was an implementation of many educational reforms of humanism in Protestant schools
•Ignatius Loyola insisted when the Bible and Church Fathers were read directly, they be read under the guidance of scholastic theologians: Peter Lombard, Bonaventure, and Aquinas
•Philip Melanchthon - a humanist and professor of Greek - wanted to reform curriculum to the humanist model
•His inaugural address On Improving the Studies of the Young portrayed himself as a defender of good letters and classical studies
•Together with Luther - they restructured the University of Wittenberg's curriculum
•Straightforward historical study replaced scholastic lectures
•In Geneva, John Calvin and Theodore Beza founded the Genevan Academy (University of Geneva)
•The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women
•Protestant reformers favored clerical

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