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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
_______ became the South’s first successful cash crop, or crop grown primarily for market. It was the main cash crop of ________ and ________.
Tobacco; Virginia and Maryland
____ and ______ were the main cash crops of South Carolina.
Rice and indigo
To be profitable, farmers had to grow large quantities of tobacco. Growing tobacco required intensive manual labor. As a result, farmers needed a _____ _________ to cultivate the crop.
large workforce
The geography of the __________ ___ ______ was well-suited for growing tobacco. Farmers used the many rivers connected to the bay to ship their crop.
Chesapeake Bay region
By the 1690s, planters in South Carolina imported ________ ________ to cultivate rice, which rapidly became a major cash crop
enslaved Africans
In the early 1740s, _____ _____ discovered that indigo grew well on land unsuitable for rice. Indigo soon became another important cash crop.
Eliza Lucas
The plantation system created a society with distinct social classes. The wealthy landowners were referred to as the ________ ______ or planter elite. They were influential in both the politics and economy of the region.
Southern gentry
By the late 1600s, the South was a sharply divided society. At the top were the _______ _____. At the bottom were the:
wealthy elite; backcountry farmers, landless tenant farmers, and servants and enslaved Africans
Bacon’s Rebellion illustrated to Virginia’s wealthy planters that in order to keep Virginia society stable, ___________ _______ needed to have land available to them
backcountry farmers
the English government adopted policies that encouraged slavery. In 1672 it granted a charter to the _____ _______ _______ to engage in the slave trade.
Royal African Company
By 1870 between 10 and 12 million Africans were forcibly taken from West Africa and transported across the Atlantic to America on a journey that Europeans called the ______ _______.
Middle Passage
The first Africans to arrive in Virginia in 1619 were treated as __________ ________.
indentured servants
Their status began to change as the number of Africans increased. In 1638 ________ became the first colony to recognize slavery. In 1705 ________ enacted a slave code—a set of laws that regulated slavery and defined the relationship between enslaved Africans and free people
Maryland; Virginia
New England’s geography was unsuitable for large plantations and the raising of cash crops. As a result, New England farmers practiced ___________ _______. The main crop grown in the New England Colonies was ____
subsistence farming; corn
New England was located near the _____ _____, a shallow region in the Atlantic Ocean where the mixing of the warm Gulf Stream and the cold North Atlantic produced a favorable environment for plankton—an important food supply for many types of fish and whales
Grand Banks
The _____ ______ was abundant with a variety of fish, which contributed to making fishing the main industry in New England. Whaling was also an important industry.
Grand Banks
Voting was limited to men who owned property. They elected __________ to manage the town’s affairs
selectmen
The Caribbean was a market for New England’s fish and lumber. In exchange for these products, New England merchants received ___ _____ or _____ __ ________
raw sugar or bills of exchange
made up nearly half of the urban population of colonial America
Artisans
People without ______ or ________ made up the next-to-lowest level of urban society. At the bottom were indentured servants and enslaved Africans.
skills or property
The Middle Colonies contained some of North America’s most fertile farmland. Most farmers produced surplus crops that they could sell for profit. _____ became the region’s most important cash crop
Wheat
During the early 1700s, Europe experienced a population explosion. The explosion created a huge demand for wheat to feed the booming population. The demand caused _____ prices to soar, making the Middle Colonies prosperous
wheat
Distinct social classes developed in the Middle Colonies. ______ _____________ were at the top. In the middle were _______ who owned small farms. At the bottom were ________ _______ who rented land or who worked for wages
Wealthy entrepreneurs; farmers; landless workers
_____________ believed that a country’s wealth was measured by the amount of gold and silver it possessed. They believed that having a greater number of exports than imports would result in more gold and silver flowing into the country
Mercantilists
Mercantilists also believed that a country should _________ ________ in order to be self sufficient in raw materials. The home country would then sell its manufactured goods to the colonies
establish colonies
When ____ _______ __ assumed the throne, he was determined to generate wealth by regulating trade in the American colonies
King Charles II
In 1660 Parliament passed a __________ ___ that required all goods imported or exported from the colonies to be transported on English ships. The act also listed specific raw materials that the colonies could sell only to England. The list included most of the products that were profitable for the colonies.
navigation act
The Navigation Acts angered colonial merchants, who in most cases broke the new laws. English officials discovered that merchants in Massachusetts ignored the Navigation Acts and smuggled their goods to Europe, the Caribbean, and Africa. King Charles II responded to Massachusetts’s refusal to observe the laws by withdrawing the colony’s charter and making it a _____ ______.
royal colony
____ _____ __, who succeeded Charles to the throne, revoked the charters of Connecticut and Rhode Island and merged them with Massachusetts and Plymouth to create a royal province called the Dominion of New England
King James II
Many people in England opposed King James II. The king often refused the advice of Parliament and openly practiced ___________. Parliament leaders feared another civil war.
Catholicism
James’s Protestant daughter Mary and her husband, William, were to succeed James on the throne. However, James’s second wife gave birth to a son, and he became the heir and would be raised ________
Catholic
Parliament was unwilling to have a Catholic dynasty, so it asked William and Mary to assume the throne. When William arrived, James fled, and William became king. This bloodless change of power became known as the ________ __________
Glorious Revolution
Parliament established the _______ ____ __ ______, which limited the powers of the king and listed the rights that Parliament and English citizens were guaranteed
English Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights would become incorporated into the ________ ____ __ ______
American Bill of Rights
After King James II was dethroned, an uprising occurred in Boston, and Governor Andros was ousted. The new monarchs reinstated Rhode Island’s and Connecticut’s previous form of __________. Massachusetts received a new charter, which combined the _____________ ___ ______, ________ ______, and _____ into the royal colony of Massachusetts
government; Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth Colony, and Maine
John Locke, a political philosopher, wrote a book entitled ___ _________ __ __________.
Two Treatises on Government
Colonists often suffered from a variety of diseases. ______ ______ conducted a successful experimental treatment to prevent smallpox by inoculating people against the disease
Cotton Mather
A large group of German immigrants arrived in Pennsylvania looking for religious freedom. These immigrants became known as the ____________ _____, and many became prosperous farmers.
Pennsylvania Dutch
Whites used brutal means and persuasion to maintain authority over the enslaved Africans. The Africans developed several ways to fight against slavery. Some employed passive resistance, such as work slowdowns; some managed to escape. Sometimes groups of enslaved Africans banded together to resist the slaveholders. In the _____ _________ in South Carolina, Africans attacked white slaveholders. The local militia ended the rebellion, killing between 30 and 40 of the Africans
Stono Rebellion
The ___________ was a European cultural movement. It challenged the authority of the church in science and philosophy and elevated the power of human reason.
Enlightenment
The emphasis on logic and reasoning was known as ___________
rationalism
____ _____ was an influential Enlightenment writer. He argued that all people had rights, and that society can be improved
John Locke
French thinker ____ _______ ________ argued that a government and its laws should be created by consent of the people
Jean Jacques Rousseau
_____ ____________, another influential Enlightenment writer, argued that to protect people’s liberties, a government should be separated into different branches to provide checks and balances against one another
Baron Montesquieu
Many American colonists in the 1700s turned to a religious movement called _______, which stressed an individual’s devoutness and emotional union with God.
pietism
Ministers spread pietism through ________, large public meetings for preaching and prayer
revivals
This revival of religious feelings became known as the _____ _________
Great Awakening
________ _______ and ______ __________ were two important preachers of the Great Awakening
Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield