Essay Thesis

5046 Words Sep 12th, 2010 21 Pages
CHAPTER 1
The Problem and its Background Introduction If you could improve performance, increase student morale an develop self esteem of a student, would you? According to B.F Skinner, behavior is a function of its consequences. The learner will repeat the desired behavior if positive reinforcement follows the behavior. Skinner said, “When someone behaves in a way we find reinforcing, we make him more likely to do so again by praising or commending him. We attest to the value of the person’s behavior by patting on the back, or saying good or right or giving him a token of our esteem such as prize, honor or award.”
Guthrie assume that learning depends on action an organism must do, it is to learn. Once the
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There are three kinds of positive reinforcement used: (praise[verbal/written], token and incentive)
Praise – essential in teachers daily contacts with the learners in school. It is satisfying feedback that focuses on the strength of the child. Token – given to a child or student for showing commendable behavior, performance, skills, etc.., that will later be exchanged with something tangible like candy, money, ice cream, etc. or non tangible things like joining a trip, given longer recess, joining a certain association or games, etc. Incentive – given to a child or student after he displays certain acceptable behavior based on the standard set by a teacher, an administrator or leader, or a parent. This may be a form of praise and materials things which have significant value or interest to a person.
Theoretical Framework
According to reinforcement theory, the learner will repeat the desired behavior if positive reinforcement follows the behavior.
According to B.F Skinner, the learning should be based on positive reinforcement. And that aversive stimulation should be used as little as possible. Skinner preference for positive reinforcement is based in part on the side effect of punishment.
Burns (1995) conceives of learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior with behavior

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