Organic composition of capital

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    profits through large firms was a natural model of economic organization under capitalism. The Fordist model of industrialization was based on mass production of homogeneous goods using assembly line production technology, standardized work routines de-skilling and homogenization of labour force. Such an organization secured increase in productivity through economies of scale. However, there were social, economic and technical limits of Fordism. Technically, there is a limit to raising productivity through economies of scale, de-skilling workers and labour intensification. Economically, there is limited market for homogeneous goods as income rises. Moreover, rate of profit starts falling as the organic composition of capital rises i.e. as the ratio of constant capital to variable capital rises. Socially, there is a growing pressure on profitability, on managerial prerogative and public finances as imposed by the growing demands of the mass worker (Clarke, n.d.). There have been a lot of debates around whether large firm or small firm is the best way of industrial organization. In the late 1970s contrary to this mass production industrial organization other alternatives emerged that focused on industrial reorganization and restructuring. Two examples of such restructuring and reorganization are: the third Italy model and the Toyota model. The Japanese model also called the Toyota model or the lean production model mainly emphasizes on the role of the management of the large…

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    Karl Marx Alienation Essay

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    Section 3 Marx’s general theory of capital 3.1 Alienation. Define Marx’s conception of alienation. Describe the tendencies within the capitalist mode of production that contribute to an increase in alienation (5 points). 1) Marx’s alienation: people who lack power in society will correspondingly lack of understanding the relationship between individuals and society/social structure. 2) Tendencies: (1) In the capitalist mode of production, although productive power of workers has increased, the…

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    Conventional wastewater treatment consists of a combination of physical, chemical and biological operations to remove solids, organic matter and nutrients from wastewater. The general terms used to describe different degrees of treatment, in order of increasing treatment levels are preliminary, primary, secondary and tertiary or advanced wastewater treatment. Preliminary Treatment The objective of preliminary treatment is removal of coarse solids and large size materials often found in raw…

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    Introduction Acetone (dimethyl ketone, 2-propane, CH3COCH3), formulation weight 58,079, isthe simplest and the most important of the ketones. It is a colourless, mobile, flammableliquid with a mildly pungent and somewhat aromatic odour. It is miscible in all proportionswith water and with organic solvents such as ether, methanol, ethyl alcohol, and esters.Acetone is used as a solvent for cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose, as a carrier for acetyleneand as a raw material for the chemical…

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    B Corps Business Analysis

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    According to “The State of Crowdfunding” by Amy Cortese, crowdfunding is a form of fundraising where small sums from a large number of investors take the place of one or two big financiers. Advocates of crowdfunding say it helps get capital into the hands of cash-strapped entrepreneurs and fills a funding gap for promising local ventures not being served by conventional funders like banks and venture capital. Crowdfunding could unlock new sources of capital for job-creating entrepreneurs,…

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    Lignocellulosic-based biomass Unlike starch, lignocellulosic biomass is a plant-based material composed of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. This class of biomass includes wood and fibrous materials from organic sources, agricultural wastes, organic municipal wastes, and organic industrial wastes [18]. Agricultural wastes contribute as the major lignocellulosic resources investigated for biofuel production. Among them are oil palm biomass [19,20], corn stalk [21], rice straw [22], wheat…

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    working class made itself a revolutionary subject through it’s class struggles due to the capital decentralising the workers and turning themselves against eachother. This had a consequence of the working class to have their team effort and activeness absorbed by capitalism. Thus, the working class become mere prisoners to consumerism whereby the working class will transform itself and fit and create a new world (Lebowitz 2012); as they are the only class that is capable of realising a true…

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    Liberty Leading The People

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    clearly of a higher economic status. This young man wears a tall black hat, an open-collared white shirt, and a fancy custom-fit black coat. Instead of holding a military weapon such as one the man to this left carries, he grips firmly onto a hunting shotgun. Just below these two figures is another man dressed in a nightshirt and one sock, collapse on cobblestones, which were scattered along the streets to form a barricade. One of the practices of the government during this time was to go after…

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    Gentrification Case

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    After all, it is a natural and organic process where those of higher-income move in to low-income neighborhoods. The private institutions, city and local governments themselves encourage this process for they benefit through the profits and tax revenues. Therefore, gentrification is not necessarily a bad thing. It uplifts and beautifies poverty-stricken neighborhoods through the flow of capital from the new high-income residents. Despite these positives, gentrification also fosters negative…

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    Surfactants targeted are the ones which when used in dilute concentration with injection brine (sea water) are able to alter wettability for a high temperature, high salinity carbonate reservoir. The motivation behind this approach is to keep the injection architecture similar to that of water flood. This would involve much lower capital investment and operating costs, leading to favorable economics compared to other EOR…

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