Organophosphorus

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    Where did phosphite come from? During WWII, rock phosphate was used as a white phosphorus incendiary and smoke screen. The shortage of rock phosphate concerned ag-officials and they began to look for alternative sources of phosphorus fertilizers. As a result, phosphonates were first considered as fertilizers in Germany and the United States during the 1930s and '40s. Rock phosphate is the beginning of most commercially made phosphorus products in the market today. Without the phosphate, many of our commercially available fertilizers cannot be made such as superphosphate and triple superphosphate. • RP + sulfuric acid = superphosphate • RP + phosphoric acid = Triple superphosphate (TSP) What do all the different terms mean? Phosphoric acid, phosphate, Ortho-P, P2O5 , MAP, DAP, TSP, superphosphate all refer to fertilizers with no fungicidal properties. Phosphonate, phosphorus acid, phosphonic acid, ethyl phosphonate are terms used synonymously with phosphite (aka. fungicide + fertilizers). It is important read labels for these keywords to know exactly what you are buying. Buying a phosphate fertilizer yields insignificant fungicidal activity. SO what’s the difference? Its actually pretty simple, a phosphite is just missing a 4th oxygen. Same as nitrate vs. nitrite. Fertilizer vs. Fungicide? It’s all in the labeling! Labeling it as a fertilizer is a good way to avoid stringent fungicide labeling restrictions. There are several fungicides and fertilizers that have…

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    Residential fires can kill more than 3,000 people per year in the United States. Most of these fires happen when people are sleeping and unaware of the situation. Have you ever wondered how basic items in your house protect you, such as walls, electronics, furniture, and doors? The answer lies in the material of these advantageous objects. These items contain fire-retardant materials including brominated hydrocarbons, organophosphorus compounds, and various minerals/hydrates. The question is,…

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    Atropine

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    compound used for medical purposes is the atropine sulphate (monohydrate). Literature Review and Need Statement: Organophosphates have been used for longest time as pharmacology compounds, and some of the noble uses of the compounds include pest control and chemical warfare. According to the article review by (Mahdi & Hemidrea, 2012) the toxicity of most of the organophosphorus compounds happens because of its cholinergic stimulation by actively inhibiting the action of Acetylcholinesterase.…

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    Chemical Warfare Weapons

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    Disease Control in conjunction with the National Safety and Health Administration has divided these agents into 8 categories: choking agents, blister agents, incapacitating agents, lung damaging agents, nerve agents, riot control agents, systemic and vomiting agents (Singh, et al., 2016). In order to fully understand the effects of these agents, it is important to take notes of the physical state of the chemical, volatility, route of exposure, concentration, mechanism of toxicity, duration of…

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    it is reliable Usefulness: relates to topic question Limitation: not enough information provided (Messner, 2013) SOURCE F- Effect Organic Food has on Health Website- 31/05/2015 Health benefits of organic food Organic food has numerous ways that increase our health; for example, heart, immune system, antibiotic resistance, pesticide reduction and antioxidant capacity. Antioxidants incline to have a greater impact on the body. This could be due to the fact that chemicals are not adversely…

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    consumer traits has been estimated for some genetically modified (GM) crops as compared to their conventional counterparts [26–28] Hefferon, K. L. (2015). “Food factories” are able to keep seedlings at a cheaper cost and therefore makes it cheaper for businesses to grow their crops. Big businesses want to save as much time and money possible to keep as much profit as they can. Instead of benefitting the consumer they would rather focus on themselves and their own needs. The pesticides…

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    Aroclor 1242 Case

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    posits would have resulted in a reduction or elimination of PCB contamination in the [Fox] River. This reasoning is flawed. The fact that Aroclor 1242 was not specifically on a list of approved food additives by FDA does not provide any information or understanding of the potential for environmental contamination or risk. 11. FDA’s early analysis for PCBs in foods in 1969 and in food packaging in 1971 cannot be interpreted as evidence that the Agency believed PCBs to be toxic at the low…

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