# Heat engine

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1.1 What is a heat engine? In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a device/system that uses heat to do work, i.e. it converts heat or thermal energy to mechanical energy. 1.2 How does a heat engine work and its operating principles? For a heat engine to work, it must operate in cycles. Firstly, heat is added into the system. Let the heat added into the system be represented by [Qh]. After that process, some of the energy that were added into the system will be used to do work e.g the materials expanding or increasing in temperature Let the work done be [W]. After that, the rest of the heat will then be removed at a cold temperature. Let the heat removed be represented by [Qc]. If we apply the law of Conservation of Energy, we will be able to form the equation:…

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All things are made of atoms that have constant movement, like five year olds on red bull. So these molecules and atoms make energy in the form of heat from their energy, similar to what your body does when it works out and you start to get hot. Therefore all matter has at least some thermal energy, no matter how small or minute it is. There is different types of energy but this essay is meant to inform readers of conduction, convection and radiation because they all deal with thermal energy.…

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Q1) What are the three main scientific concepts regarding the Gas Turbine Engine 1. Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics  Definition: The first law of thermodynamics states that the total energy of the system is constant and that energy can neither be created nor destroyed and can only transform from one form to another. This means that we can't create noting from something, and we can't create something from nothing. Energy exists and cannot become nonexistent and nonexistent energy cannot…

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the operating pressure of the boiler. The pump operation is considered isentropic. Boiler: The heat is supplied in the working fluid (feed water) in the boiler and thus vapour is generated. The vapour leaving the boiler is wther saturated at the state 3 or superheated at the state 311, depending upon the amount of heat supplied in the boiler. Steam power plant that operates on the Rankine cycle Figure1: Simple steam power plant that operates on the Rankine cycle Turbine: The…

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Thermal effect results from the change in the heat capacity of the gases in the combustion chamber. It is worth mentioning that EGR contains water and CO2 which have higher specific heat capacity than air. The change in absorbing heat is proportional to the added mass, to the heat capacity at constant pressure and to the difference in temperature between the EGR and the combustion temperature. ΔQ=Δm*Cp*(Tcom-Tegr) The change in specific heat capacity results from charge dilution and represents…

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Numerical and Computational Fluid dynamics analysis of heat transfer enhancement and the corresponding pressure drop over a flat surface equipped with cylindrical cross-sectional perforated and solid pin fins in a rectangular channel. The channel had a cross-sectional area of 250-100 mm2. The experiments covered the following range: Reynolds number 13,500–43,500, the constant clearance ratio (C/H) = 0, the inter-fin spacing ratio (Sy/D) 1.944 and 3.417 for Staggered arrangement and Inline…

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Sadi Carnot, in 1824, explained mathematical principle of refrigeration operation. It was described as a heat engine. In the process of vapor compression refrigeration the refrigerant has to complete phases in cyclic order. In this process, heat is removed and consequently the desired location becomes cool. It is a mechanical process. Indeed, refrigeration system is the process of several refrigeration cycles. It is the widely exploited method for various purposes such as refrigeration,…

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everyday life, we do not see boulders roll up hills spontaneously; some work must be put in to move a boulder against the pull of gravity. The Second Law provides an answer as to why these actions do not spontaneously occur, and why other actions do spontaneously occur. In a few words, the Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the entropy of the universe can only ever increase. In the world of statistics, entropy is the state of highest uncertainty, or disorder, while enthalpy, its opposite,…

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in technology It is easily recognized that a complete listing of fluid applications could be nearly impossible simply because the presence of fluids in technological devices is ubiquitous. The following provide some particularly interesting and important examples from an engineering standpoint.  Internal combustion engines all types of transportation systems  Turbojet, scramjet, rocket engines—aerospace propulsion systems  Waste disposal • chemical treatment • incineration • sewage…

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and temperature are directly proportional, as given by Gay-Lussac’s Law. Discussion: In a stirling engine, as hot air is added into the system, the temperature will eventually level out when it reaches equilibrium, which we will call the Boyle’s constant expressed in the Boyle’s Law. The difference in initial temperature of the system and the current added heat will cause the initial volume in the cylinder to increase which in turns pushes the displacer up, which is stated in Charles’ Law, when…

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