Entropy And The Laws Of Thermodynamics

Improved Essays
Q1) What are the three main scientific concepts regarding the Gas Turbine Engine
1. Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics
 Definition:
The first law of thermodynamics states that the total energy of the system is constant and that energy can neither be created nor destroyed and can only transform from one form to another. This means that we can't create noting from something, and we can't create something from nothing. Energy exists and cannot become nonexistent and nonexistent energy cannot become exist. The first law makes use of the key concepts of internal energy, heat, and system work. It is used extensively in the discussion of heat engines.
 Example:
An example of first law of thermodynamics is when a fan is on, the motor heats up;
…show more content…
The gas turbine will first intake of air and possibly fuel, and then Compression of the air and possibly fuel, after that Combustion, where fuel is injected if it was not drawn in with the intake air and burned to convert the stored energy, finally expansion and exhaust, where the converted energy is put to use, which, in turn, propel the airplane. In some modern environments the cycles are described as SUCK, SQUEEZE, BANG, BLOW. Every joule of heat released by combustion of the fuel could be extracted as work at the output shaft. Such an engine would operate at 100 percent efficiency.
2. Newton’s third law of motion
 Definition:
The Newton’s third law states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The statement means that in every interaction, there is a pair of forces acting on the two interacting objects. The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object, thus they balance each other.
 Example:
An example of Newton’s third law is when you sit on a chair; your body exerts a downward force on the surface of the chair, while the chair exerts an equal and upward force on your
…show more content…
Air is a bit different than a fluid although it acts as though it were a fluid through an orifice, meaning that by compressing it tightly, one could compress tiny molecules of air into a very confined area, mix in fuel in its vapor form, and ignite the fuel air mixture. Igniting the fuel and air forces the mixture to covert its stored potential energy into thermal and mechanical energy, turning the rear turbine blades.

Q2) Sketch the Brayton Cycle graph & a High Bypass Turbo Fan (HBTF) & give a description of the work cycle of gas through a HBTF engine at each point.

1) Brayton Cycle

Stage one from point 0 to 3, the air is sent through the intake and moved in the compressor, in which air will get compressed and pressure and temperature of this air will get increased and the volume is decreased. Stage two from point 3 to 4, the air will move to combustion chamber where the fuel is injected and the temperature and entropy rises after combustion. Stage three 4 to 8, the gases expand through the turbines which cause volume to increase and pressure and temperature will both decrease, which will cause turbine to produce thrust and work. At 8 to 0, the air will move out through the exhaust. This cycle is then repeated over and over

Related Documents

  • Superior Essays

    Gas Turbine Theory

    • 1872 Words
    • 8 Pages

    The hot and rapidly expanding gases are directed aft through the turbine rotor assembly. There thermal and kinetic energy are converted into mechanical energy. The gases are then directed out through the exhaust duct. Theoretical Cycle of GTE Let’s discuss a little on the cycle and theory of the gas turbine before we discussion on construction and design. As you are aware, a cycle is a process that begins with certain conditions.…

    • 1872 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Rankine cycle Figure 2: Rankine cycle As mentioned earlier, the Rankine cycle also includes the possibility of superheating the vapor, as cycle 1–2–3–4–1. If changes of kinetic and potential energy are neglected, heat transfer and work may be represented by various areas on the T–s diagram. The heat transferred to the working fluid is represented by area a–2–2–3–b–a and the heat transferred from the working fluid by area a–1–4–b–a. From the first law we conclude that the area representing the work is the difference between these two areas—area 1–2–2–3–4–1. The thermal efficiency is defined by the relation For analyzing the Rankine cycle, it is helpful to think of efficiency as depending on the average temperature at which heat is supplied and the average temperature at which heat is rejected.…

    • 766 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    To identify the preferred rotation direction, a blower performance analysis is needed. A blower is usually an enclosed multiblade rotor that compresses air to a higher discharge pressure. Blower is also known as fan, but, traditionally, blowers do not discharge air at low pressure as some fans do. Figure 1.6 – CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER Dryers use centrifugal blower, where air is radially discharged from the impeller, (or fan wheel), so turns 90° from its inlet to its outlet (Figure 1.6). Air enters the impeller at the blade inlet with an absolute velocity of v_1.…

    • 857 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Heat Release Rate Model

    • 836 Words
    • 4 Pages

    The instantaneous concentration of reactants and products are calculated from the burn fraction of fuel synthesized by the Wiebe function. The aim of the proposed model is to provide accurate thermodynamic conditions in the cylinder to facilitate the pressure and temperature calculations for performance prediction alone. The fluid mass flow rate and changes in fluid properties during intake and exhaust processes are calculated by a gas exchange process analysis [51] and detailed model is available in the earlier paper…

    • 836 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Petrol Engine Essay

    • 891 Words
    • 4 Pages

    In algid weather, high speed diesel engines can be arduous to commence because the mass of the cylinder block and cylinder head absorb the heat of compression, obviating ignition due to the higher surface-to-volume ratio. Pre-chambered engines make utilization of minuscule electric heaters inside the pre-chambers glow plugs while the direct injected engines have these glow plugs in the combustion chamber. The glow plug is a pencil-shaped piece of metal with a heating element at the tip. This heating element, when electrified, heats due to its electrical resistance and commences to emit light in the visible spectrum, hence the term "glow"-plug. The effect is very kindred to that of a toaster.…

    • 891 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Refinery Chemistry Essay

    • 1378 Words
    • 6 Pages

    • Flexi Coking: the unit crack the vacuum residues same as the Delayed coking, but it used steam to gasify most of the coke. The main characteristics of the thermal cracking and different between three processes are in Figure 3. These processes are part of the future refinery since they take care of heavy product from ADU/VDU, and they are relative simple, cracking through heat. Also, the main use of it in refinery thermal cracking is to prepare the feed to the catalytic cracking. In the future, they will become more efficient where most of the changes will be done in the heater internals and introduce a catalysts in the heater (Speight, 2011).…

    • 1378 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    The steam is under high pressure when it emerges before the pressure pushes the steam over the turbines. The steam will make the turbine spin, converting the heat energy released in the boiler into mechanical energy. When the turbine spins, the generator also spins because they connected by a shaft. The generator has an electromagnetic…

    • 2608 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    When studing liquid fuel combustion in gas turbine combustor, complicated principals including reactive flow, spraying, turbulent flow, multiphase flow, convective and radiative heat transfer and their interactions should be considered. In recent 40 years combustion chambers have continuously improved structurally. Present combustion chambers are generally devided to three main groups: Can type, Can Annular type, and Annular type chambers. Combustion chambers consist of components such as swirler, injector, diffuser, liner, cooling holes, dilution holes and etc. A gas turbine combustion chamber classically has three zones: primary zone, secondary zone, and dilution zone.…

    • 1305 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Ethylene Case Study

    • 1030 Words
    • 5 Pages

    The feed consists of ethane and air, which is compressed, mixed, preheated to 285°C, and then sent to an isothermal packed bed reactor to form the desired products. The products then are sent through a series of heat exchangers to cool the product down to -30°C, creating a two phase flow which facilitates separation of the effluent. The output from the final heat exchanger is thus separated rather easily using a flash vessel. The vapor stream, containing the unreacted ethane feed and inert nitrogen as well as any ethylene and carbon dioxide formed in the reactor, is compressed then separated in a distillation column. The liquid stream from the flash vessel, primarily consisting of acetic acid and water, is heated and expanded before being sent to a distillation column to be separated into reagent grade (99% purity) acetic acid and a wastewater stream (Figure…

    • 1030 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    I. Abstract: The central objectives of this examination are to discover the warmth exchange convection and radiation together from a level barrel in typical convection over a broad assortment of power inputs and surface temperature. Moreover to take a gander at amidst convection and radiation heat trade and amidst Hc and Hr. Additionally, to choose the effect of obliged convection and to show the association between velocity and surface temperature for compelled convection. Likewise, demonstrate that the area heat trade coefficient shifts around the limit of a level barrel when subjected to obliged convection. In Exp # 1, the voltage was continuously changing until the heater temperature (T10) reach the steady state condition and at this time,…

    • 1947 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Improved Essays