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    Diageo Case Study

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    1. What do you think about the capital structure policies Diageo has pursued in the past. Do they make sense? How does it compare to Diageo’s competitors’ policies? Which competitors would make for the best comparison? (40%) Diageo was formed from the merger of Grand Metropolitan plc and Guinness plc. Before the merge, both companies used little debt (based on the book D/E ratio and net debt to total capital in the table below) to finance themselves which helped them gain and maintain high credit rating (A and AA respectively). After the merge, Diageo wanted to take the same path by maintaining the interest coverage between 5 and 8 (through actions such as new debt issuance, share repurchase programs shown in figure 1) and having EBITDA/Total Debt between 30 and 35 % to avoid potential downgrade. Its market gearing is 25%. Furthermore, its debt's pay-back period (Debt/EBITDA) shows its ability to pay off its incurred debt in a relatively short period of time. Coupled with the high multiple of cash available for interest payments over the years (EBITDA/Interest expense), the probability of a financial distress is low. We know market gearing is equal to debt over enterprise value. Using data from exhibit 4, we find debt level equal to $6.7 billion. Diageo can take on more debt if needed and benefit from the advantages of a high credit rating. This conservative financial policy allows Diageo to get a rating of A+ with the possibility to raise debt readily with lower promise…

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    Amarna is a city that is separated. The separation occurs within the title of nobility or one of a commoner. This was the urban plan, or the central idea of the design of the city. Since this was a capital city in the Egyptian empire, the nobles cannot be living at the same level or area as the people they rule over. That would be a disgrace! The city designers too this ideal and made all their designs for the city around that image. When any large metropolitan area is created, the organization…

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    In order to be considering a megacity, a city has to have over 10 million citizens in its metropolitan area (Bugliarello, 1999). Different reasons can be nominated as causes of cities become a megacity. People coming from rural areas trying to find a better condition of life maybe are the major reason of the population growth in most megacities. However, with a big agglomeration of people and a big city, the government has to not let the problems assume control of the city. Problems such as…

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    Urban Expansion

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    The industrial age has change how the world is being structured. During the agricultural age, the land was mainly used to produce food for sustaining both human and animals. As we moved into the industrial, factories and city centers began being built. There arose a need for adequate living arrangements for the people that worked in the factories and city centers. Urban areas designed to accommodate large numbers of families began to spring up around these factories and city centers. Fast…

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    Apia Case Study

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    Urban development in Apia Introduction Apia is the capital city of Samoa and the largest city in the Pacific. In Apia, there is a trend that 40% of population are looking forward to live in urban area. And the rate of urban growth will be continued to increase (Pacific island populations in Jones article, 2001). Urban population, density of house and waste from industries are all rise continually. Due to the increasing of pressure of urbanization and the lack of effective management solutions,…

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    Urban Migration

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    suburbanization of population and employment has been easily observed in large metropolitan areas all over the world, which is generally referred to as “sprawl”. This phenomenon has accompanied not only the spatial redistribution of population, but also the geographical relocation of firms, which has brought about several urban problems – for instance, severe traffic congestion due to the growing distance between jobs and housing, inefficient energy consumption due to the increased commuting…

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    Urbanization is a complex spatial process that converts rural land uses to urban uses, and causes various impacts on ecosystem structures, function, dynamics, and the livelihoods of human beings. It is expected that by 2030, there will be 2 billion new urban residents. The study also suggests that 90 percent of urban growth is taking place in developing world. A largely rural country, with only 17 percent of the population living in urban areas (Nepal census, 2011), Nepal is urbanizing rapidly.…

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    Public Transportation Systems for Urban Areas Objective: Introduction: 1. Urban Public Transportation Systems: Cities and metropolitan areas are centers of diverse activities, which require efficient and convenient transportation of persons and gods. It is often said that transportation is the lifeblood of cities. High density of activities makes it possible and necessary that high capacity modes, such as bus, light rail and metro, be used because they are more economical, more energy efficient…

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    started out as Ryan Homes in 1948 in Pittsburg and became NVHomes, Inc. in 1980. The company currently operates in fourteen states and Washington D.C., and under four trade names: Ryan Homes, NVHomes, Fox Ridge Homes, and Heartland Homes. Ryan Homes and Fox Ridge Homes’ primary market are first time and move-up buyers. Ryan Homes operates in 27 metropolitan areas located in Maryland, Virginia, Washington D.C., West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, North and South Carolina, Florida, Ohio, New…

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    Met Architecture Analysis

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    The Metropolitan Museum of Art, or the Met, is the most famous museum in New York City, and the largest museum in North America. The Met also owns a museum in far Upper Manhattan called “The Cloisters”, which predominantly showcases various forms of art from the medieval period. Although, I will be talking about the main Met compound located at 1000 Fifth Avenue. The Met’s permanent collection is comprised of art from an expansive range of culture and various time periods within said cultures.…

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