Urban Migration

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For the past few decades, suburbanization of population and employment has been easily observed in large metropolitan areas all over the world, which is generally referred to as “sprawl”. This phenomenon has accompanied not only the spatial redistribution of population, but also the geographical relocation of firms, which has brought about several urban problems – for instance, severe traffic congestion due to the growing distance between jobs and housing, inefficient energy consumption due to the increased commuting distance, air pollution due to the increased vehicle use, and a decline in the overall regional economies due to the decline of the central business district. In order to mitigate such problems, there have been a variety of efforts …show more content…
Most existing studies examining the effects of public transportation on urban spatial structure have focused on development patterns, especially changes in land use patterns, land value, and housing values. For example, a considerable body of empirical studies has provided supportive evidence that expansion of transit corridors or construction of the new transit system encourages high density development (8, 9) and increases property values (10, 11). However, such studies could not present how the improvement of public transportation shapes urban spatial structure across the large metropolitan …show more content…
In reality, large population and employment subcenters have emerged outside of central cities in large metropolitan areas, which demonstrate that major cities have become increasingly polycentric. This phenomenon has been driven by job clusters emerge where there is a good transportation network and suburbanization of labor force (16). However, the suburbanization pattern of population is not the same as that of employment. For example, while there are some regions showing that employment growth precedes population growth (e.g. Snowbelt areas), there are other regions experiencing the opposite pattern (e.g., Sunbelt areas) (18). This is not only because the effect of a transportation network on the suburbanization of population is different from that of employment, but also because the interrelationship between population and employment

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