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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Light Microscope (LM)

An optical instrument with lenses that bends visible light to magnify images and project them into a viewer's eye.

Cell Theory

All living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells.

Electron Microscope

A microscope that uses magnets to focus an electron beam through, or onto the surface of a specimen. It magnifies 100x better than a light microscope.

Scanning Electron Microscope

A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the surface details of a cell or other specimens.

Transmission Electron Microscope

A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the internal structure of thinly sectioned specimens

Which type of microscope would you use to study (a) the changes in shape of a living human white blood cell; (b) the finest details of surface texture of a human hair; (c) the detailed structure of an organelle in a liver cell?

(a) light microscope; (b) scanning electron microspoce: (c) transmission electron microscope.

Plasma Membrane

The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell; consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.

Prokaryotic Cells

A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles.

Eukaryotic Cells

A cell that has a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles.


The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm


A gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell. A chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.


A cell structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. In eukaryotic, the ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleolus


The contents of a eukaryotic cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; consists of a semifluid medium and organelles; can also refer to the interior of a prokaryotic cell.


A non-membrane-bounded region in a prokaryotic cell where the DNA is concentrated.


A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. The flagella of prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in both structure and function. Like cilia, eukaryotic flagella have a "9+2" arrangement of microtubules covered by the cell's plasma membrane.

List three features that are common to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. List three features that differ.

Both types of cells have plasma membranes, chromosomes containing DNA, and ribosomes,

Prokaryotic cells are smaller, do no have a nucleus that housed their DNA or other membrane-enclosed organelles, and have smaller, somewhat different ribosomes.


A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell.

Cellular Metabolism

All the chemical activities of a cell.

Identify the structures in a plant cell that are not present in the animal cells.

Chloroplast, central vacuole, cell wall, and plasmodesmata.


The complex of DNA and proteins that make up eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing.

Nuclear Envelope

A double membrane that encloses the nucleus, perforated with pores that regulate traffic with the cytoplasm.


A structure within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA is made and assembled with the proteins imported from the cytoplasm to make ribosomal subunits.

Describe the processes that occur in the nucleus.

DNA is copied and passed on to daughter cells in cell division; rRNA is made and ribosomal subunits assembled; protein-making instructions in DNA are transcribed into mRNA

What role do ribosomes play in carrying out the genetic instructions of a cell?

Ribosomes synthesize proteins according to the instructions of messenger RNA, which was transcribed from DNA in the nucleus.

Which structure includes all others in the list: rough ER, smooth ER, endomembrane system, nuclear envelope?

Endomembrane system

Endomembrane System

A network of membranes inside and surrounding a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.


A sac made of mebrane in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

An extensive membranous network in a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded and ribosome-free regions.

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

The portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached that make membrane proteins and secretory proteins.

Explain why we say that endoplasmic reticulum is a biosynthetic workshop.

The ER produces a variety of molecules, including phospholipids for cell membranes, steroid hormones, and proteins (synthesized by bound ribosomes) for membranes, other organelles, and secreted to the cell

What is the relationship of the Golgi apparatus to the ER in a protein-secreting cell?

The Golgi receives the transport vesicles budded from the ER that contain proteins synthesized by bound ribosomes. The Golgi finishes processing the proteins and dispatches vesicles to the plasma membrane, where the proteins are secreted.


A protein with one or more short chains of sugars attached to it.

Transport Vesicle

A small membraneous sac in a eukaryotic cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produce by the cell. The vesicle buds from the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi and eventually fuses with another organelle or the plasma membrane, eventually releasing its contents.

Golgi Apparatus

An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of membranous sacs that modify, store, and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum.


A digestive organelle in eukaryotic cells; contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest engulfed food or damaged organelles.

How is lysosome like a recycling center?

It breaks down damaged organelles and recycles their molecules.


A membrane-enclosed sac that is part of the endomembrane system of a eukaryotic cell and has diverse functions in different kinds of cells.

Is a food vacuole part of the endomembrane system?

Yes; it forms by pinching in from the plasma membrane, which is part of the endomembrane system.


An organelle containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen atoms from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.

How do transport vesicles help tie together the endomembrane system?

transport vesicles move membranes and the substances they enclose between components of the endomembrane system.


An organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs. Enclosed by two membranes, it is where most of the cell's ATP is made.

Mitochondrial Matrix

The compartent of the mitochonrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle.

What is cellular respiration

A process that converts the chemical energy of sugars and other food molecules to the chemical energy of ATP.


An organelle found in plants and algae that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive synthesis of organic compounds (sugars) from carbon dioxide and water


A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epideris of a leaf. When stromata are open, CO2 enters a leaf, and H2O and O2 exit. A plant conserves water when its stroma are closed.


A flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast. Thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyl and the molecular complexes of the light reactions of photosynthesis. A stack of thylakpids is called a granum.


A stack of thylakoids.

Endosymbiont Theory

The theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as prokaryotic cells engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic cell. The engulfed cell and its host cell then involved into a single organism.

The Cytoskeleton

A network of protein fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; incudes microfilaments, intermidiate filaments, and microtubules.

Microtubules (large)

The thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making uo the cytskeleton if a eukaryotic cell; a holow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins; found in cilia and flagella.


A structure found in animal cells from which microtubules originate. It is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles.

Intermediate filaments

an intermediate-sized protein fiber that is one of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. Intermediate filaments are ropelike. made of fibrous proteins.

Microfilaments (small)

The thinnest of the three main kinds of protein fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a solid, helical rod composed of the globular protein actin.

Which component of the cytoskeleton is most important in (A) holding the nucleus in place within the cell' (b) guiding transport vesicles from the Golgi to the plasma membrane; (c) contracting muscle cells?

(A) intermediate filaments; (B) microtubules; (C) Microfilaments

Which membrane in a chloroplast appears to be the most extensive? Why might this be so?

The thylakoid membranes contain chlorophyl for photosynthesis.


A short cellular appengage specialized for locomotion or moving fluid past the cell, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two single micrtotubluse (the 9+2 arrangement) covered by the cells plasma membrane.

Extracellular Matrix

The meshwork surrounding animal cells; consists of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. It is synthesized and secreted by cells.


A transmembrane protein that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton in animal cells.

What is the difference between immunofluorescence microscopy and molecular cytochemistry?

In the former, fluorescently labeled antibodies show the locations of specific molecules. In the latter, the molecules themselves are labeled, and their behavior within a living cell can be tracked

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also known as immotile cilia syndrome, is a fairly rare disease in which cilia and flagella are lacking motor proteins, PCD is characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections and immotile sperm. How would you explain these seemingly unrelated symptoms?

Without motor proteins, microtubules cannot bend, Thus cilia cannot cleanse the respiratory tract, and sperm cannot swim.

A muscle ear injury would probably involve the rupture of which type of cell junction?

anchoring junction

Cell Wall

A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists; protects the cell and helps maintain its shape.


An open channel in a plant cell wall that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.

Which animal Cell Junction is analogous to a plasmodesmata?

A gap junction

How do mitochondria, smooth ER, and the cytoskeleton all contribute to the contraction of a muscle cell?

Mitochondria supply energy in the form of ATP. The smooth ER helps regulate contraction by the uptake and release of calcium ions. Microfilaments function in the actual contractile apparatus.

The ultrastructure of a chloroplast is best studied using a

transmission electron microscope

The cells of an ant and an elephant are on average, the same small size; an elephant just has more of them. What is the main advantage of small cell size?

small cells can better take up sufficient nutrients and oxygen to service their cell volume

Which of the following clues would tell you whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes.

What is a major components of the plasma membrane of a plant cell?


What four cellular components are shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

DNA as genetic material, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and cytosol.

Describe two different ways in which cilia can function in organisms

Cilia may propel a cell through its environment or sweep a fluid environment past the cell.

in which cell would you find the most lysosomes?

white blood cells that engulf bacteria
in which cell would you find the most smooth ER?
Ovarian cell that produces estrogen.

in which cell would you find the most rough ER?

a pancreatic cell that secretes digestive enzymes.

in which cell would you find the most mitochondria?

muscle cell in the thigh of a long distance runner.

in what ways do the internal membranes of a eukaryotic cell contribute to the functioning of the cell

different conditions and conflicting processes can occur simultaneously within separate, membrane-enclosed compartments. Also, there is increased area for membrane-attached enzymes that carry out metabolic processes.

Describe the structure of the plasma membrane of an animal cell. What would be found directly inside and outside the membrane?

The plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic heads facing the aqueous environment on both sides and the hydrophobic fatty acid tails mingling in the center of the membrane. Proteins are embedded in and attached to this membrane. microfilaments form a three-dimensional network just inside the plasma membrane. the extracellular matrix outside the membrane is composed largely of glycoproteins, which may be attached to membrane proteins called integrins. integrins can transmit information from the EMC to microfilaments on the other side of the membrane.

describe the pathway of the protein hormone insulin from its gene to its export from a cell of your pancreas.

An mRNA molecule is transcribed from the gene for insulin and moves into the cytosol. There it joins with a ribosome that becomes attached to the outside of the rough ER. The ribosome produces a polypeptide that is threaded into the ER compartment. The polypeptide folds up and may be modified within the ER. it is then packaged into a transport vesicle. The vesicle joins with a Golgi sac, and the protein may be further modified during its journey through the Golgi apparatus. A transport vesicle pinches off fro the Shipping face of the Golgi and fuses with he plasma membrane, secreting insulin from the cell.