Animal Cell Essay

1034 Words 5 Pages
Organelles of Animal Cells

The Nucleus:
~A large, round organelle visible under the microscope.
Functions- Regulation
• Controls the cell’s activities
• Controls cell reproduction
Contains genetic material - DNA that makes up the genes and chromosome.

The Ribosome: ~Made of dozens of different proteins as well as RNA, also found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. Ribosome are typically composed of two subunits:
• Large subunit
• Small subunit
“ Free” Ribosome makes proteins that remain inside the cell,
“Bound’’ Ribosome make proteins that are exported from the cell.

~Protein Synthesis ~Chemical reactions is molecules that are brought into contact with one another.
• Transcription (uses a different type of nucleic
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• One region is called Rough ER because it has ribosome attached to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane.
• Another region is called Smooth ER because it lacks attached ribosome.
~The smooth ER is a tubule network and the rough ER is a series of flattened sacs.

Mitochondria:
~The energy comes from organic compounds to make ATP, the main energy currency of cells.
• Has DNA and Ribosome
• Make their own proteins
~Mitochondrial DNA is independent of nuclear DNA and similar to the circular DNA of prokaryotic cells.

The Cytoplasm:
The contents outside of the nucleus and enclosed within the cell membrane of a cell.
• It’s clear and has a gel-like appearance
• Helps to move materials
• Dissolves cellular waste
• It supports organelles inside the cell.

Plasma Membrane:
~The membrane forms the external covering both type of cells, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic.
It is semi-permeable controls the movements of substances into and out of the cell helping it maintains homeostasis.
• Consists a phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded throughout.
• Separates what’s inside
• Acts as an attached

WHAT AM
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It’s an organelle found in a large number of cells, where the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It also has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers. Mitochondria are made of two membranes in the outer membrane covers the organelle and contain its skin as the inner membrane folds over many times and create layered structures. The energy made is called ATP. ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate. It’s a single nucleotide with two extra energy storing phosphate groups. When food molecules are broken down inside cells, some of the energy in the molecules is stored temporarily in ATP. Cells need a steady supply of ATP to

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