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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

When was the sequencing of the human genome completed


Recombinant DNA

Nucleotide sequence is from two different sources, often two species are combined in vitro into the same DNA molecule

Genetic engineering

Direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes


The manipulation of organisms or their genetic components to make useful products


A measurement of gene expression of thousands of different genes

What are two general features of laboratory cloning that are common to most methods

The use of bacteria and their plasmids


Small circular DNA molecules that replicates separately from the bacterial chromosome

What are clone the genes useful for

Making copies of a particular gene and producing a protein product

Restriction enzymes

Cut DNA molecules at specific DNA sequences called restriction sites

Restriction fragments

The pieces of DNA resulting from the restriction enzymes many cuts

Sticky ends

Enzymes cut DNA in a staggered way, producing fragments with and that bond with complementary ends of other fragments

DNA ligase

Enzyme that seals the bonds between restriction fragments

Cloning vector

The original plasmid in gene cloning, It is a DNA molecule that can carry foreign DNA into a host cell and replicate their

Genomic library

Collection of recombinant factor clones produced by cloning DNA fragments from an entire genome

Complementary DNA (cDNA) library

Is made by cloning DNA made in vitro by reverse transcription of all the mRNA produced by a particular cell it represents only part of the genome only the subset of genes transcribed into mRNA in the original cells

A clone carrying the gene of interest can be identified with

A nucleic acid probe, having a sequence complementary to the gene, this process is called nucleic acid hybridization

How is this probe used and made

Clones of the genetic material are placed on a nylon membrane and radioactively labeled probing molecules, is then pairs with the section of interest and is recorded on film

Southern blotting

Combines Jell-O electrophoresis of DNA fragments with nucleic acid hybridization, It uses labeled probes that hybridized to the DNA immobilized on a blot of gel

Relatively short DNA fragments can be sequenced by what method

The dideoxy chain termination method

Dideoxy Chain termination method

Dideoxyrobinucleotides (ddNTP) attach to synthesized DNA strands of different lengths, Each ddNTP is tagged with a distinct fluorescent label that identifies the nucleotide at the end of each DNA fragment, the DNA sequence can be read from the resulting spectrogram

Northern blotting

Can be used to test changes in expression of a gene during embryonic development, uses a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

DNA microarray assays

Compare patterns of June expression and different issues, different times, or under different conditions

How can you determine gene function

Disable the gene and observe the consequences

In vitro mutagenesis

Mutations are introduced into a clone gene, altering or destroying its function

Totipotent cell

One that can generate a complete new organism

Nuclear transplantation

Nucleus of an unfertilized egg cell or zygote is replaced with a differentiated cell

How do you make the cell from nuclear transplantation have genes that are expressed appropriately for early stages of development

Many epigenetic changes must be reversed, these changes include acetylation of histones or methylation of DNA

What does the use of cultured eukaryotic cells host cells and yeast artificial chromosomes as vectors help to avoid

Gene expression problems

Stem cell

Relatively unspecialized cells that can be produced self indefinitely and differentiate into specialized cells

Embryonic stem cell

Stem cells isolated from early embryos of the blastocyst stage, they are able to differentiate into all cell types,

What is the aim of stem cell research

Supply cells for the repair of damaged or diseased organs, many fields benefit from DNA technology and genetic engineering,

Single nucleotide polymorphism’s

Useful genetic markers, when restriction enzymes are added the DNA fragments will have different lengths depending on the SNPs, this is called restriction fragment length polymorphism

Gene therapy

Alteration of an afflicted individuals genes, It holds great potential for treating disorders transfer to a single defective gene, vectors, such as plasmids and viruses, are used to deliver genes to specific types of cells, gene therapy raises ethical questions

Transgenic animals

Are made by introducing genes from one species into the genome of another animal, they are pharmaceutical factories

How can you obtain a genetic profile and how can it be used

He can be obtained by analysis of tissue or body fluids, and can be used as evidence in criminal or paternity cases and to identify human remains

Short tandem repeats

Genetic markers that Mark variations in the number of repeats of specific DNA sequences, PCR enjoy lecture for rhesus are used to amplify and then identify STRs of different lengths

Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs)

Behave normally in mitosis and can carry more DNA than a plasmid

Eukaryotic hosts

Can provide the post translational modifications that many proteins require

Polymerase chain reaction, PCR

Produces many copies of a specific target segment of DNA, consists of three step

Three steps of a polymerase chain

Heating, cooling, and replication, this brings about a change reaction that produces and exponentially growing population of identical DNA molecules

What does DNA cloning allow researchers to do

Comparing genes and alleles between individuals, locate gene expression in a body, determine the role of a gene in an organism

What are some techniques them are used to analyze the DNA of genes

Gel electrophoresis, restriction fragment analysis, and southern blotting, DNA sequencing

Gel electrophoresis

In indirect method of rapidly analyzing and comparing genomes, this technique uses a gel as a molecular sieve two separate nucleic acid‘s are proteins by size, a current is applied that causes charged molecules to move through the gel, molecules are sorted into bands by their size

Restriction fragment analysis

DNA fragments produced by restriction enzyme digestion of a DNA molecule are sorted by gel electrophoresis, this is useful for comparing two different DNA molecules, such as two alleles for a gene