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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How can a relatively small number of chemicals be used to build many large complex and diverse molecules?
Why can one organism use molecules from another organism to build their own?
How are organic molecules combined to create the structures and functions necessary to support life?
Explain how the properties of carbon enable it to produce diverse organic molecules.
Carbon has 4 electrons on it's outer shell so it easily bonds with other CHNOPS to form a stronger shell meanwhile creating new stronger molecules.
Describe how functional groups affect a carbon molecule's chemical reactivity.
Compare what is added and what is produced during biomolecule synthesis and degradation reations.
In synthesis molecules join together to make a larger molecule, meanwhile dropping a small molecule, condensation reaction.

Degradation reaction is breaking up of a large molecule when water is added, hydrolysis
Compare solubility in water of a 2-carbon alcohol and a 2-carbon carboxylic acid biomolecule
Discuss what would happen if no water was present during degradation of a biomolecule
The molecule could not break
List several examples of important monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
monosaccarides: Glucose-simple sugar
polysaccharides: Starch, glycogen, cellulose
Compare the energy and structural uses of starch, glycogen and cellulose
Starches: Store glucose in plants. Branched or unbranched .
Glycogen: Stores glucose for animals in liver that can be mobilized by pancreatic hormone insulin. Always branching
Cellulose: Most abundant. Not easily broken down, every other glucose molecule is flipped allowing for more hydrogen bonds strengthening it.
Explain why humans cannot utilize the glucose in cellulose as a nutrient source.
Human cannot break down the glucose bonds in cellulose. Most animals use symbiotic bacteria to help digest cellulose
Compare and contrast the structure and function of cellulose with chitin
Cellulose are in plants' cell wall; chitin make up the exoskeletons of crustaceans.
Cellulose has a monomer of glucose; chitin has an amino acid group attached to each glucose
Describe why lipids are essential to living organisms
Explain where fats and oils are produced
Contrast the structures of fats, phospholipids and steroids.
Compare the functions of phospholipids and steroids in cells.
phospholipids: Plasma membranes that hold cytoplasm in the cells
Evaluate why lipids and water do not mix
Lipids are hydrogen bonded only to carbon and therefore are nonpolar and are not soluable in water.
Contrast a saturated fatty acid with an unsaturated fatty acid. Which of these is perferred in the diet and why?
Saturated has no double bonds with carbon and can hold many hydrogen , sticky and solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated fatty acids are double bonded with carbon chains so have less room for hydrogen bonded atoms. Do not stick together well and are liquid at room temperature.
Unsaturated fats are better to consume because they do not stick to one another.
Explain why phospholipids form a bilayer in water.
Phospholipids are water attractive on one side and non attractive on the other forming a bilayer.
Describe functions of proteins in cells
proteins give cells their structure and function
Explain how a polypeptide is constructed from amino acids
two or more amino acids are covelently bonded to each other forming a peptide. When these bond to each other they form a chain, polypeptides.
Compare the 4 levels of protein structure
Analyze the factors that affect protein structure and function
Explain where the information that specifies amino acid sequence in a polypeptide comes from
Messanger RNA creates a copy showing the sequence of the amino acids during protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA moves them into sequence.
Ribosomal keeps the peptide bonds in place.
Examine which types of amino acids are most likely to be found in the interior of a protein and why
hydrophobic amino acids are usually found in the interior of a protein as they are repelled from the water on the surface of the protein.
Evaluate which factors are most important to protein folding.
Water is most important as it pushes and pulls the protein into it's shape and holds it there.
Distinguish between a nucleotide and nucleic acid
Nucleic acids are polymers made up of nucleotides.
Compare the structure and function of DNA and RNA nucleic acids.
Examine why purines and pyrimidines pair together.
Explain how ATP is able to store energy.
Examine how a nucleic acid stores information
Describe the 3 components of a nucleotide
Evaluate the properties of ATP that make it an ideal carrier of energy.