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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Cell division in unicellular organisms

Used to reproduce the entire organism

Three uses of cell division in multicellular organisms

Development from a fertilized cell, growth, repair

Cell cycle

Life of a cell from formation to its own division

Most cell division is ______ and results in _________

Mitotic, and results in daughter cells with identical genetic information, DNA


All the DNA in a cell

DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into


Somatic cells (2n)

Most body cells, they have two sets (pairs) of chromosomes

Gametes (n)

Reproductive cells, sperm and eggs, have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells

Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of

Chromatin, a complex of DNA and protein that condenses during cell division

What happens to DNA in preparation for cell division

DNA is replicated

Describe duplicated chromosomes

They have two sister chromatids, which separate during cell division


The waist of the duplicated chromosome, where the two chromatids are most closely attached

Eukaryotic cell division consists of

Mitosis and cytokinesis


The division of the nucleus


The division of the cytoplasm

The cell cycle consists of

Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis and cytokinesis)

Interphase: G1, normal cell growth

S, copying of chromosomes

G2, growth in preparation for cell division

Which phase of the cell cycle is a cell in for the majority of its lifespan

A cell will spend most of its life time in interphase

List the five phases of mitosis

Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

When is cytokinesis taking place

It is well underway by late telophase

Mitotic spindle

Apparatus of microtubules that controls chromosome movement during mitosis

Where does microtubule assembly begin during prophase

Microtubule assembly begins in the centrosome

What happens to the centrosome

The centrosome replicates, forming two centrosomes that migrate to opposite ends of the cell

What is an aster

Radio array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome


Centrosomes appear, nuclear membrane disappears


Spindle microtubules attached to the kinetochores of chromosomes begin to move the chromosomes


The chromosomes are all lined up at the metaphase plate, the midway point between the spindles two poles


Sister chromatids separate and move along with the kinetochore microtubules toward opposite ends of the cell


Genetically identical daughter nuclei form at opposite ends of the cell, nuclear membranes reappear

How do microtubules shortem

By depolymerizing at their kinetochore ends

How does a cell elongate

Nonkinetochore microtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other

Cytokinesis in animal cells

Cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage, forming a cleavage furrow in the plasma membrane

Cytokinesis in plant cells

A cell plate forms from Golgi vesicles (membrane)

How do you prokaryotes reproduce

Prokaryotes reproduce by type of cell division called binary fission,

Binary fission

Chromosome replicates and the two daughter chromosomes move apart as the cell elongates

What drives the cell cycle

Specific chemical signals present in the cytoplasm

Cell cycle control system

System that directs cell cycle events, it is similar to a Clock

Describe the cell cycle control system analogy to a clock

The clock has specific check points where the cell cycle stops until I go ahead signal is received

What is the most important checkpoint and why

G1 checkpoint is the most important, if it receives the go ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint a cell will usually complete the S, G2, and M phases and divide

If the cell does not receive the go ahead signal

It will exit the cycle, switching into a nondividing state called the G0 phase

Two types of regulatory proteins that are involved in cell cycle control

Cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases


Maturation promoting factor, a cyclin dependent kinase that triggers a cells passage past the G2 checkpoint into the M phase

Density dependent inhibition

Crowded cells stop dividing

Anchorage dependence

Cells must be attached to a substratum in order to divide

Cancer cells

Do not respond normally to the bodies control mechanisms, they divide add an accelerated rate, causing a lump or tumor

What is the process by which a normal cells convert it to a cancerous cell


Benign tumor

Abnormal cells remain at the original site, can be removed easily

Malignant tumor

Cancer cells invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize, exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body, where they may form secondary tumors