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54 Cards in this Set

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Scientific study of heredity and variation


Transmission of traits from one generation to the next


Is demonstrated by the differences in appearance that offspring show from parents and siblings


Units of heredity, and are made up of segments of DNA

How are genes passed

Through reproductive cells called gametes


A genes specific location on a certain chromosome

Asexual reproduction

One parent produces genetically identical offspring by mitosis


A group of genetically identical individuals from the same parent

Sexual reproduction

Two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from two parents


Generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism

Human somatic cells (2n) have how many pairs of chromosomes



Ordered display/picture of the pairs of chromosomes from a cell

The two chromosomes in each pair are called

Homologous chromosomes or homologs

Sex chromosomes

X and Y (female: XX, male: XY)

What are the 22 pairs of chromosomes that do not determine gender called


How many autosomes do humans have


Each pair of homologous chromosomes include

One chromosome from each parent

The 46 chromosomes in a human somatic cell are two sets of

23, one from the mother and one from the father

Diploid cell

(2n) has two sets of chromosomes, in humans 2N = 46

In a cell in which DNA synthesis has occurred each chromosome is


Each replicated chromosome consists of

Two identical sister chromatids

How many sets of chromosomes do gamete cells contain

One set, they are called haploid cells (N)

Each set of 23 chromosomes consists of how many autosomes and how many sex chromosomes

22 autosomes, 1 sex chromosome

Sex chromosome in an undertakings egg (ovum)


Sex chromosome in a sperm cell

Can either be X or Y


Union of gametes (egg and sperm)

Fertilized egg is called a


Typical eukaryote cell life cycle

2N zygote, mitosis, growth, adult


Ovum and testes, produce haploid gametes by meiosis


Reduction division, goes from two sets of chromosomes to only one set of chromosomes

Do gametes go through any further cell division before fertilization


Alternation of generations in plants and some algae

Life cycle includes both a diploidy and haploid multicellular stage, diploidy organism is called sporophyte, haploid organism is called gametophyte

Do fungi and protists have a multicellular diploid stage

No, most fungi and some protists do not have a multicellular Diploid stage

Can haploid cells undergo meiosis

No, only diploid cells can undergo meiosis

Meiosis is preceded by

The replication of chromosomes

How does meiosis take place in terms of cell divisions

Where is this occurs in two sets of cell divisions, meiosis I, and meiosis II

How many daughter cells does meiosis results in


Each daughter cell has how many chromosomes relative to the parent

Each daughter cell has only half as many chromosomes as the parent cell

Main event of meiosis I

Homologous chromosomes separate

Meiosis I results in

Two haploid daughter cells with replicated chromosomes

What happens in the second cell division, meiosis II

Sister chromatids separate

Meiosis II results in

Four haploid daughter cells with on replicated chromosomes, it is calledthe equational division

How is meiosis I like and different to mitosis

Basically the same, except instead of sister chromatids being pulled apart, each pair of homologous chromosomes are pulled apart, and during metaphase I they form a double file line

Three mechanisms in sexual reproduction that contribute to genetic variation

Independent assortment of chromosomes at equator of metaphase I, crossing over, prophase I (synapsis/tetrad), random fertilization, the number of combinations possible and chromosomes of sort independently into gametes is 2^N, where N is the haploid number

Random fertilization

Any sperm could fuse with any ovum

How does meiosis II compare to mitosis

It is exactly the same save the fact that there is only half as many chromosomes

Crossing over

Unique event that only happens in meiosis I, parts of the DNA from each homolog is chromosomes switches over to the other chromosome in its pear, it cannot happen in meiosis II because the pairs of chromosomes are separated


Crossing over

What is a tetrad

Each pair of chromosomes form a group of four chromatids


X shaped regions where crossing over occurred

How do each of the four daughter cells formed in meiosis compared to the original parent cell

They are genetically distinct or different


Change in an organisms DNA, the original source of genetic diversity,

What do mutations create

Different versions of genes called alleles


Reshuffling of alleles during sexual reproduction produces genetic variation