Restriction Enzymes In Biology Essay

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Restriction enzymes are used to manipulate DNA sequences to create recombinant DNA by first cutting up the foreign DNA in order to protect the bacteria cell against invading DNA from other organisms. The enzyme is very specific when it comes to identifying a specific DNA sequence. When the enzyme identifies the specific DNA sequence it cuts both DNA strands at specific points at the restriction site. Lastly, the DNA ligase joins the DNA from two different sources and produces a recombinant DNA molecule by catalyzing the formation of covalent bonds that close up the sugar-phosphate backbones.
Bacterial plasmids are used to clone DNA sequences of interest and then create bacterial strains which produce a human protein in large amounts by having
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The basic differences between plants and animals in their processes of development is that animals require their cells and tissues to move so that the embryo can form into the shape of the animal it will grow into, unlike plants that are not required to do so. Another difference is that plants throughout their lifecycle undergo morphogenesis and growth. While, animals stop undergoing these processes.
The basic processes of cloning in plants versus the basic method used in animal cloning, nuclear transplantation differs from one another. In plants, the process uses the plant’s somatic cells to create genetically identical cells of that plant. Due to totipotency of plants this is possible, in which certain plant tissue have the ability to dedifferentiate and change into an undifferentiated cell and after dedifferentiate and develop into a new genetically identical plant. In animals, the process is not possible because animal cells do not have totipotency. Cloning in animal cells requires the removal of an unfertilized egg cell or zygote. Then, it is replaced with the nucleus of the cell to be cloned. The method is known as nuclear transplantation, and was used successfully to clone a

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