Recombinant Dna Synthesis

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Recombinant DNA is genetically engineered DNA that is formed by splicing fragments of DNA. Organismal cloning is the artificial creation of a new organism that is genetically identical to its counterpart. DNA cloning is a recombinant DNA technique where cDNAs and fragments of genomic DNA are inserted into a cloning vector and maintained during growth of the host cells. Vector is an agent that transfers genetic material into a cell or organism. Restriction enzymes are bacterial enzymes that find restriction sites and cleaves DNA. restriction enzymes and DNA ligase are utilized to produce recombinant DNA molecules. DNA ligase catalyzes formation of 3′ and 5′ end phosphodiester bonds. Plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA molecules capable of independent …show more content…
Gel electrophoresis is a laboratory method used to separate macromolecules. Also, used in the production of recombinant DNA and DNA cloning restriction fragments are fragments of a DNA molecule that are cleaved by a restriction enzyme. Early in the 1970s, Fred Sanger developed a sequencing technique known today as Sanger sequencing. Sanger Sequencing is the use of dideoxynucleotides to terminate newly synthesized DNA fragments at specific bases. Dideoxynucleotide triphosphates (ddNTPs) serves as the chains terminators, with the higher concentration of ddNTP the shorter the products will be and with a lower concentration the longer the products will be. Fluorescent dyes are yellow dye that are visible even when highly diluted that used as an absorption indicator. Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew by mitosis while in undifferentiated state. Embryonic stem cells are stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells of a human embryo, also due to them being pluripotent, they can differentiate into all derivatives of the ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. The induced pluripotent stem cell is the immature cell that is generated from an adult cell and regained the capacity to differentiate into any type of cell in the …show more content…
Speciation is the origin of new species. Species are a group of closely related organisms. The Biological Species Concept is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring. Fertile means the ability to produce offspring. Viable is the capability of life. Diversity is the degree of variation of living things present. Diversification is the process by which the diversity of plants or animals develops and is increased within a region. Reproductive isolation is when a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed are unable due to geographical, behavioral, physiological, or genetic barriers or differences. Reproductive isolation prezygotic barriers are habitat isolation which is when they occupy different habitats, temporal isolation when they breed at different times, behavioral isolation when courtship rituals unique to a species, mechanical isolation is morphological differences and, gametic isolation is when sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize eggs of other species. The phylogenetic species concept defines a species as the smallest group of individuals. Allopatric Speciation is when gene flow is reduced when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations. Sympatric Speciation is when speciation takes place in geographically overlapping populations. Sympatric

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