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37 Cards in this Set

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Protestant Reformation

a powerful religious movement that began in Saxony, Germany against the medieval church-laxity toward heiritcal movements, faith and good work

firm discipline

where did reformation break out?

Switzerland and Germany

who liked the reformation

the guilds, people being bullied by gvnt

why did people have more criticism on church?

people of the renaissance were smarter, books, printing press, explorers

The modern Devotion

Brothers of common life, boarding school, educated themselves

northern europe

clerics and laity share common religious life

Imitation of Christ

Thomas Kempis, basis of all reformers, ascetic life

Benefice System

positions that were sold to highest bidder who failed to enforce traditional rules for these positions

failed in rome bc secularism and regional identity

threatened lay life

government found ways to take church land because they were tired of the church interfering

Martin Luther and Lutheranism

brother of common life, law degree, fail to fam

fulfill true obligations as Christians

rejected 'Righteousness of God'-never be prefect

salvation by faith alone

sole belief in scriptures

unimportance of good work

social and political heirarchy


"credits" sold by church to get one and his loved ones out of time in purgatory

Jubilee of Indulgences-gets out of lifetime of sins-raise money for St. Peter's Basilica

95 theses (but the pope Leo aint one)

in reaction to Jubilee of Indulgences, Luther mad, nailed it to door

Election of Charles V

distraction for Luther-able to form revolt

Frederick the Wise

wanted to defend Luther bc from university of Wittenberg

Luther's excommunication

Luther challenged the infallibility of the pope and the inerrancy of church councils

gave him 60 days to retreat

Diet of the Worms

Luther's address to the chirstian nobility of the german nation, presented views and was placed under imperial ban

hid in Wartberg council and copied bible

Habsburg-Valois Wars

Holy roman empire vs. France, over territories in Italy, won 4-0

Edict of Worms-Distracted he agreed the princes to have territorial sovereignty***

How did the reformation Spread

Pamphleteers-mandated religious reforms

rulers seeking religious reform

Saxony and Hesse-big protestant rulers support Luther

Schmalkaldic League-defensive league for german potestants

Peasants Revolt

Peasants revolting against their lords to override traditional customs

revolted in Luther's name even though Luther did not care for the peasants

Luther believed freedom of Christianity lay inner spiritual release of guilt not in revolutionary politics

Proved Martin Luther was very liberal

Preconditions of the Swiss reformation

Switzerland had loose alliance of 13 cantons(states)-some catholic some prot

2 preconditions: growth of national sentiments, wanted church reform


credited Erasmus over Luther

known seducer of swiss

1523 gvnt approved of Zwingli's scripture


The Marburg Colloquy

Phillip of Hesse tried to unite Germany and Swiss(Luther and Zwingli) but theological differences

Luther=God is in bread, Zwingli=just symbolism

formed new defensive leagues separtely

Swiss civil war

cantons divided between Protestant and catholic

major battles-both at Kapple

Zwingli chopped up into 4 pieces

Anabaptists and radical protestants

believed people shouldn't be baptized till adulthood

do not believe in oaths to secular office

pacifists and separation of church and state

Conrad grebel-swiss, worked for Zwingli, founder of Swiss Brethren

viewed as a threat

ruled in Munster Germany, forced to convert or had to leave,

John Calvin and the Genevan reform

Calvinism replaced Lutheranism

inspired political resistance in France, Netherlands and Scotland

***divine predestination, be who you are because that's God's plan for you

Calvin's Geneva

elected people who favored Calvin and declared full independence from Bern

calvin returned and reformed city

5 pastors, teachers and doctors, 12 elders and deacons

calvinists issues

didn't write about predestination until Institute of Christian Religion

true believers liked predestination-though of themselves as God's elect

women's paradise-equality

The Diet of Ausberg

Emperor Charles V pursued political and military campaigns in Spain

diet called to discuss religious division of reformation

wanted Lutherans to change to Catholicism

education reform

gave primary education

girls too

Humanist revision of curriculum

Instruction of laity

reaction against Protestants (Charles V)

tried to convert ports to christianity

failed so crushed defensive league instead

captured Frederick of Saxony and Hesse

Peace of Ausberg

Maurice of Saxony turned against Charles and favored Lutherans

allowed Protestants under Peace of Passau

religion under ruler-cuoisio religio eious religio

The reformation of Parliament

harassed clergy

Henry=head of english church

act of succession

declared Anne Boleyn's children legitimate heirs

Act of Supremecy

declared Henry Head of church of ENgland

thomas more and John Fisher refused to recognize this and were beheaded

Act of Uniformity (and second act)

book of common prayer, and revised edition

Catholic reform beggining

Pope didn't want one because of what happened to Basel

Theatines-higher level of church reformers

Capuchins-reform ideas of Francis

Ursalines-religious ed to girls

Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits

soldier, began spiritual journey after wounded in battle

absolute loyalty to pope, blind obedience

spiritual exercises for mind

The council of Trent

reassertion of church doctrine-after prot success

strictly under Pope's control

reforms: no more selling of church offices(benefices gone)

strengthened authority of local bishops preists dressed nicer

reaffirmed scholastic education

Don Quixote

and Cervantes

Satire of chivalric romances (pop. in Spain)

Writes about a man who reads 2 much chivalric romances and thinks he needs to prove himself so he fights a windmill (thinks its a drag)

He fails and comes back to die a broken hearted old man

Creates the word Quixotic - being foolish