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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Hanseatic League

Formed by German + Netherlands states to compete with Renaissance states in trading

Medici Family

Banking family that held power in Italy in the 15 century. Controlled politics + culture

Book of the Courtier

Written by Castiglione, it set the standard for the Renaissance man.


Father of the Renaissance, he distinguished b/t the Dark Ages and the Renaissance.

Lorenzo Valla

Translated the language of Constantine and revealed it to be a fraud, making the church look bad. (Underlying cause of Reformation)

Civic Humanism

Perfecting oneself for the good of the state.


Idea that man can become like God

Johannes Gutenberg

Developed the printing press

Oration on the Dignity of Man

Written by Dela, about neoplatonism.


Southern Renaissance painter, famous for St Peter's Basilica, School of Athens, Disputa. Portrayed humans as wise + dignified.

Jan van Eyck

Flemish artist. One of the earliest artists to use oil-based paints.


Southern Renaissance painter and sculptor. Famous for Sistine Chapel, and the David.


-Expressing abstract truths and using classic Greek aesthetic

-Male figure

War of the Roses

Civil War b/t houses of York and Lancaster. Hurt trade, agriculture, and domestic industry. Allowed tutors to come to power.

Louis the Spider

New monarch of France, had a web of connections


Austrian, rulers of Holy Roman Empire, powerful but people tried to contain them. Distracted Charles V from Martin Luther. Had well-executed policy.

John Hus

Influenced by mysticism + considered one of the first church reformers

Pope Julius II

Decided to rebuild St Peters Basilica, patronized Raphael + Michelangelo


Political philosopher who wrote The Prince. Actions should be judged by their consequences.

Why did Italy experience a rebirth?

Independent city states in Italy were growing wealthy and business men were able to become patrons of art.

What characteristics distinguished the Italian Renaissance?

Its value of culture, urban secularism, classical antiquity, individualism, and its value of an active + moral life. Realism, naturalism, skepticism, secularism, ism ism ism.

Church in the Ren Era

Influence + prestige was declining

Southern Ren Art



-Classical texts/styles in new ways


-Bright colors


Northern Ren Art

Van Eyck, Brugal

Human individuality

Common people

Christian humanism


Prince of Christian Humanism

Praise of the Folly

Translated New Testament

Used irony

Education + Christianity


A declaration by church authorities that those who say certain prayers, do good works, OR pay a certain price will have some of their punishment in purgatory remitted.

Edict of Worms

Declares Luther as an outlaw

Charles V

HRE, calls Luther to Diet of Worms. Outlaws Luther + his followers

Hapsburg-Valois War

Dynastic disputes over Italian city states kingdoms

Peace of Augsburg

Religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler

Future German Princes who choose Lutheranism cannot take church land

NO calvinism

Act of Supremacy

Passed by Parliament under Henry 8th

Declared King head of church of england

Led to debate in house of commons


Calvinist belief that it was already decided if you were going to be saved or damned (only god can decide)

Papel Index

Index of forbidden books, included all protestant writings


Society of Jesus

Goal: help souls, not reform the church

Chastity, obedience, stability

Humanist education

Council of Trent

Council on how to deal with Church corruption and how to deal with challenges (i.e. Martin Luther) to the church

Start to ban sale of indulgences

Validity to scripture


Sail, first used by Portugal. Allowed for faster transport of goods and people.

Magellan, Cortes

Circum navigated the globe


Grant of Land given to European settlers in the New World. Also gave them the people who lived on this land


French Calvinists

St Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Catholic Margaret Valois married Huguenot Henry of Navarre
This upset Catholics, who responded by killing thousands of Protestants

Edict of Nantes

Published by Henry, ended French wars of religion

Toleration of protestants

Prepared for absolutism

Helped restore peace in france

Spanish Armada

Defeat of Spanish Armada ensured protestantism in England

Peace of Westphalia

Series of Peace treaties ending the Thirty Years War

Malleus Maleficarum

How to find witches and what to do with them/how to kill them

El Greco, Bernini, Shakespeare

Bernini: Baroque

El Greco: Mannerist


Dark, educational, theatrical, landscape

El Greco


Aggressive, power, for monarchs, irregular

Bernini + Valesquez


Popularized the essay as a literary genre

How did Christian humanists prepare for the Reformation?

Taught personal relationship with God

"Erasmus laid the egg Luther hatched"

Martin Luther vs Church

Priesthood of believers, faith, and primacy of scripture

Humans saved by God, not their own efforts or good works

Faith of each believer


How did politics and religion become entangled during the Reformation?

Religion was political, not true secularism

Kings and emperors got involved


Baptized as adults

Condemned + persecuted by other Protestants


Church of England

Created so Henry 8th could get divorced


Develops a theocracy


Baptism not means of grace

Reformed church with Calvinists



Age of Discovery

New ways to find goods (get from other places)

Anglo Spanish War

The ____ was fought between Protestant forces under Elizabeth I and the Catholic forces of Philip II.

30 Years War

The ___ was fought throughout Western Europe. It was concluded with the Peace of Westphalia which effectively ended the Age of Religious Wars in Europe.

Dutch Revolt

Netherlands: The ___ was a war in which Protestant forces in the Netherlands sought independence from Catholic Spain.


King's spies, checked on colonies

Cardinal Richelieu

Ruled for Louis 13th, very popular. Got France in 30 years war. Made king powerful

Cardinal Mazarin

Ruled for Louis 14th. Not very popular. Got France in the Fronde.


Revolt of French nobles against king (Mazarin)

Edict of Fontainebleau

Revoked Edict of Nantes


Financial genius, tried to fix huge debt. Mercantilism.


Louis 14th palace


Royal family of Prussia


Royal family of Russia (Catherine and Peter the Great)

Petition of Right

English Monarchs power is limited

Oliver Cromwell

Made new model, defeated King Charles

Bill of Rights

Made England a limited monarchy

New Model army

Cromwell's army


Renaissance themed art, centers on royalty and nobility. Bright colors

Dutch East India Company

Stock company during brief dutch golden age

John Locke

Social contract, power of govt comes from people

If govt does not protect natural rights, should be overthrown

Thomas Hobbes

Social contract, people by nature are scary, so we need govt