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67 Cards in this Set

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The Canterbury Tales by Chaucer
This is the first significant work written in teh English vernacular, as opposed to Latin. It describes a group of pilgrims traveling between London and Canterbury Cathedral. Each pilgrim tells a story to entertain the other travelers. It was written in Middle English.
The Decameron by Boccaccio
A story about 10 friends trying to hide from the Black Death. Each would tell a story every day, a total of 100 stories which demonstrate a range of human emotion.
The Divine Comedy by Dante
A trilogy: (1) Inferno (2) Paradiso (3) Purgatorio; it is a journey that describes the fate of a soul based on the kind of life you've led; written in Italian rather than Latin.
The Autobiography of Benvenito Cellini
Amazing work that captures the Renaissance spriit of individualism. "Man can do all things."
The Courtier by Castiglione
A book of Renaissance etiquette. He described the qualities needed by a man in the modern age. Teh man who has it all is a "Renaissance Man."
The Prince by Machiavelli
First major work of modern political science. It argues that a ruler must be guided by realistic ideas rather than Christian morality. "It's better to be feared than loved." "Ends justify the means."
On the Origin of Species by Darwin
Revolutionary science text that argued that all plant and animal life are in a state of constant, gradual change, evolution. Those that adapt best, survive.
In Praise of Human Folly by Erasmus
Brilliant, satirical work where the author mocks certain Catholic dogma in order to make his points; important work of Christian humanism.
Utopia by More
Description of a perfect world where all people practice pure Christian kindness.
95 Theses by Luther
Revolutionary religious text that offered arguments against the Catholic teaching about indulgences (good works); written in Latin, it started the Protestant Reformation.
Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants by Luther
Condemnation of the Peasants' Revolt of 1525. The author supported the princes.
Institutes (of the Christian Religion) by Calvin
Protestant text orginially written in French, he explains predestination, the Doctrine of the Elect, he offers a clear structure for a Protestant church.
In Defense of the Seven Sacraments by Henry VIII
Condemned Luther and took the side of the Church; written by an English monarch.
Book of Common Prayer
Collection of English language prayers used by the Anglican Church
120 Theses by Tetzl
Failed response to Luther's 95 Theses. It is an attempt to support good works.
The Way of Perfection by St. Theresa of Avila
A Catholic spiritual book that explained the path to sainthood.
The Spiritual Exercises by St. Ignatius of Loyola
A Catholic spiritual text that describes things you can do to make your faith stronger.
List of books that Catholics are forbidden to read.
Paradise Lost by Milton
Masterpiece of Baroque literature. It describes a battle in heaven between God and the angel Lucifer. It describes how Lucifer helped man to fall. "I would rather reign in hell than serve in heaven."
Don Quixote by Cervantes
A story of a Spanish gentleman who believed he had been born 300 years too late. He wanted to be a medieval knight, but he was nearsighted. He set off on a quest to slay a dragon; he battled a windmill.
On the Revolutions of Heavenly Bodies by Copernicus
Scientific text published on his deathbed that asserted the heliocentric theory. It is the beginnings of modern astronomy.
New Astronomy by Kepler
Scientific text that used complex mathematical equations to prove the heliocentric theory; elliptical orbits.
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems by Galileo
A side-by-side comparison of heliocentricism and geocentrism; it was clear which theory was correct.
Principia by Newton
Most important scientific text ever written. It includes the authoer's work with gravity, motion, universal science, and calculus.
Optics by Newton
Detailed the author's work with light; he showed that white light shown through a prism creates the spectrum.
On the Structure of the Human Body by Vesalius
First major medical text to contain drawings of human anatomy since antiquity.
On the Movement of Blood in Animals by Harvey
Medical description of the circulatory system and the role played by the heart and lungs.
Inquiry into the Cause and Effect of Vaccine by Jenner
Description of the author's work with a smallpox vaccine and his discovery of cowpox; he argued that it was possible to give a person protection from a disease before they were exposed to it.
New Instrument by Bacon
Text in which Bacon explains the scientific method and the need for empirical data.
Discourse on Mehod by Descartes
Explanation of his work and his approach to scientific knowledge; "Cogito ergo sum" "I think, therefore, I am."
The Republic by Bodin
Intellectual blueprint for absolute, divine right monarchy; he argued that God chooses kings to rule over people.
The Leviathan by Hobbes
Political science text that explained the social contract theory for the first time. The author believed that a king's power comes from the people, not God, and that the contract could never be broken.
Of Civil Government by Locke
Political science text that argued taht the social contract could be broken. People have the right to revolt, and the rights of life, liberty, and property. He was inspired by the Glorious Revolution; inspirational to the Declaration of Independence.
True Laws of Free Monarch by James I
A political text htat argued in favor of absolute, divine right monarchy. The author used the Bible to justify it. It was inspired by Bodin.
Candide by Voltaire
A satirical work that mocked the optimistic views of the day and the belief in a loving God. Dr. Pangloss' comment that "we live in the best of all possible worlds at the best of all possible times" captures the theme.
Philosophical Letters on the English by Voltaire
A love letter to England written during an exile from France. The author compared the freedom of England to the repression of France. "England, where men think free and noble thoughts."
The Spirit of the Laws by Montesquieu
Influential political work that advocatedt he separation of political powers into different branches of government. It influenced Madison in the drafting of the US Constitution.
The Social Contract by Rousseau
Revolutionary work that opposed hereditary monarchy and argued that man is happiest in the "natural state" and that civilization is corrupting. He favoured the "general will" or democracy. "Man is born free, yet eerywhere he is in chains."
Encyclopedia by Diderot
Compendium of all human knowledge to be at your quick access. The first was 28 volumes and focused on philosophy and science.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Gibbon
The first modern history book based on empirical data, not simply legends or myths. Much of the author's research was based off the newly discovered ruins at Pompeii.
The Wealth of Nations by Smith
Probably the single most important economics text ever written; Smith argued against mercantilism and in favour of supply and demand capitalism; government should maintain "laissez-faire" towards economy.
The Laws of War and Peace by Grotius
First major book of international law; in it, the author argued that nations were goerned by the same laws as people; 3 mile limit
Gulliver's Travels by Swift
Masterpiece of 18th century satire that mocked English society.
What is the Third Estate by Sieyes
Revolutionary pamphlet in France that inspired people before the Revolution. His answer to the eponymous question: everything.
Declaration of the Rights of Women by de Gouges
A response to the exclusion of women from Declaration of the Rights of Man. It's the first argument that women should have the same rights as men, since they have the same responsibilities.
Vindication of the Rights of Women by Wollstonecraft
English-language echo of Olympe de Gouges' Declaration of the Rights of Women
Reflection on the Revolution in France by Burke
Criticism of the excesses of the French Revolution; the first major book of conservatism. "No single generation has the right to destroy the work of all the generations that came before it."
Frankenstein by Shelley
Masterpiece of Romantic literature about the danger when man tries to play God.
Ode on a Grecian Urn by Keats
Piece of Romantic poetry designed to stir European passions to support the Greek cause. "Beauty is truth, and truth beauty. That is all ye know of life, and all ye need to know."
Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth
Masterpiece of Romantic poetry that captures their rejection of science and the Enlightenment and their love of nature.
The Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population in Britain by Chadwick
Engineering book that explains how to build a modern sewer system.
The Conditions of the Working Class in England by Engels
A social critique about the unfair, unjust, unneccessary suffering of the urban working poor. The author describes real stories of incredible suffering.
Oliver Twist by Dickens
Story of an orphan boy and his struggle to survive. It relected the author's empathy for poor children. He had been one.
A Tale of Two Cities by Dickens
On the surface, it's about the French Revolution, but it's really a warning to British society in the 1840s that, if the bourgeoisie doesn't take care of the poor, the same thing could happen there.
Rationale of Punishment and Reward by Bentham
An argument for the humane treatment of prisoners. The author favoured rehabilitation over punishment and argued if you reward good behaviour, you'll get more of it.
On Liberty by Mill
Bible of liberalism; it explains the political philosophy of liberalism. "The government that governs best, governs least."
On the Subjugation of Women by Mill
An argument in favour of women's equality, including suffrage; he argued that society could not be truely free when half of humanity was treated as second-class.
Essay on the Principle of Population by Malthus
The author argued that population was growing faster than the ability of the earth to sustain it. Therefore, "starvation is inevitable."
Principles of Political Economy and Taxation by Ricardo
It explains the "iron law of wages," that labour is subject to the same rules of supply and demand as any other good
What is Property by Proudhon
Utopian Socialist masterpiece that explains what Utopian socialists believe: that profit is theft. The bourgeoisie steals the profit of the proletariat's labour.
The Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels
One of the most important political science texts ever; it explains the ideology of Communism. It includes the historical dialectic and the line "Workers of the world unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains."
Das Kapital by Marx
An economics text that explains the economic theories of Communism, such as government ownership of all property.
Book of Household Management by Beeton
Guide on how to run a house well, home economics. It included recipes, tips for managing servants, childrearing hints, and etiquette.
Charge of the Light Brigade by Tennyson
Epic poem that describes a battle during the Crimean War; it celebrated the courage of the common soldier. "Theirs not to reason why / Theirs but to do and die," and it mocked the stupidity of politically appointed officers.
Je Accuse by Zola
Newspaper essay that accuses France of knowingly sending an innocent man to Devil's Island and leaving him there because they didn't want to admit their mistake.
The Jungle Book by Kipling
Collection of Indian fairy tales, written as a love letter to British India
Interpretation of Dreams by Freud
First book of psychoanalysis; he argued that the clues to our behaviour can be found in our subconscious, that everything we do is driven by our past. Dreams can offer clues to our subconscious.