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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Historians often refer to the 17th century as an Age of __
List 4 things that caused the Age of Crisis
Climate changes, increased governmental pressure, religious divide and war
What was the difference in serfdom in Eastern and Western Europe at this time?
West: did not exist; East: prevalent
List the 4 phases o the 30 Years' War
Bohemian, Danish, Swedish and French
In the 1st phase, Catholics defeated Protestants at what battle?
Battle of White Mountain
During the 2nd phase, the Edict of Restitution was issued. What did it say?
All Catholic properties lost to Protestantism and only Catholics/Lutherans were allowed to practice their faith
What Swedish ruler led the 3rd phase against the Catholics?
Gustavus Adolphus
What was the goal of Cardinal Richelieu in aiding the Protestants in the 30 Years War?
To weaken Hapsburg power in Europe
What treaty in 1648 ended the 30 Years' War?
Peace of Westphalia
What gave absolute rulers their power?
Divine right of kings
Who was responsible for strengthening royal control after the reign of Henry IV?
Cardinal Richelieu
What are intendants?
Commissioners for each of France's 32 districts who were appointed by the monarch
What was the main foreign policy goal of Cardinal Richelieu
Destroy the Catholic Hapsburgs' grip on the territories surrounding France
Who became the chief minister of Louis 14
Cardinal Jules Mazarin
A series of uprisings at the beginning of Louis XIV's reign
What title did Louis 14 take
The Sun King
What did Louis 14 do about the Edict of Nantes?
Revoked it (to maintain religious unity) and religion would now be Catholicism
What became the center of French political, social and cultural life
The Palace at Versailles
Who managed the finances of Louis 14
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
System of regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state (must have favorable balance of trade and colonies exist for good of mother country)
What was the War of the Spanish Succession
spanish king charles II died he left the crown to louis 14's grandson (phillip of Anjou) who would inherit both french and spanish crown (but that'd be too much power)
What peace treaty ended this war
Peace of Utrecht
Name 5 places England gained bc of War of Spanish Succession
Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Gibraltar, Asiento (slave trade) and Hudson Bay territory
What happened to Spanish colonial trade bw 1610 and 1650
fell 60% due to competition with local industries and dutch/english traders
What was the effect in Spain of the expulsion of 300,000 Moriscos (former Muslims)
reduced the pool of skilled workers and merchants
The prince of Moscow was awarded what title by Mongol rulers
the great prince
What prince of Moscow stopped acknowledging the Khan and ceased to pay tribute
Ivan 3 (the Great)
The highest ranking members of Russian nobility
Who did Ivan 3 marry
Daughter/Niece of last Byzantine emperor
What title did Ivan 4 take
How did Ivan 4 treat the boyars
tortured them, persecution
Free groups and outlaw armies
After the death of Ivan 4 Russia entered a period known as
Time of Troubles
Who became the hereditary tsar after Ivan 4
Michael Romanov
What 2 countries & leaders fought in the Great Northern War
Charles XII of Sweden and Peter the Great of Russia
In what battle did Peter the Great finally crush Sweden
Battle at Poltova
1670 one of the largest peasant rebellions in Russia took place led by
Cossack Stenka Razin (stinky raisin)
What new western style capital did Peter the Great build
St. Petersburg
What did modernization mean to Peter the Great
Ruler of the Ottoman empire was called a
Core of the Ottoman army was made up of slave conscripts known as the
Janissary corps
Ottomans divided their subjects into self governing communities known as
millet system
what 2 nations evolved towards constitutionalism
england and holland
limitation of gov. by law
form of gov. where there is no monarch and power rests in the hands of the people thru elected reps.
when james I assumed the english throne, what his greatest problem
he believed he had divine right and was responsible to only God
What did the Puritans want
To "purify" the anglican church of roman catholic elements
how did charles I antagonize religious sentiments in england
married catholic princess, supported policies of archbishop of canterbury william laud
william laud attempted to impose what 2 new elements on church organization in england
1)new prayer book 2) bishops
why did charles I have to summon parliament
to finance an army to put down the scots
what legislation did the long parliament enact
limited power of monarch, made gov. without parliament impossible (triannual act: they must meet at least once every 3 years), impeached william laud,
parliament formed an army to oppose charles I known as
New Model Army
When Cromwell took control and dismissed the members of parliament who opposed him
Rump Parliament
philosopher Thomas Hobbes said best gov. was
social contract b/w society and monarchy
Thomas Hobbes wrote about gov. in
Would Hobbes agree with the right of rebellion
After the execution of king a republican gov. called __ was produced
What is Latin for between kings
Stuart kings (in order)
James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II
Rule of Cromwell was called a __ but in reality it was a __
protectorate...military dictatorship
cromwell's economic policy
after cromwell, the stuart dynasty was brought back to the throne under what king
Charles II (Merry Monarch)
Charles II period known as
Restoration of 1660
Test Act
Legislation by English Parliament to secure Anglican Church and stripping other religions of right to vote, hold office, teach, assemble, etc
Who replaced James II
William and Mary of Orange
"Glorious Revolution"
replaced 1 king with another with minimum of bloodshed
Revolution of 1688 established the principle that __ was divided bw king and parli
Before ascending the throne, William and Mary had to agree to what
English Bill of Rights
Concept of rep. gov. found its best defense by john locke in
2nd treatise on civil gov. (belief that people have right to rebel if king stinks)
Idea that the cabinet was responsible to the house of commons developed under what royal minister
sir robert wapole
United Provinces of Netherlands had in each province an executive offer called
Political success of dutch rested on their
commercial prosperity