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15 Cards in this Set

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New Imperialism

A European expansion went forward with great speed, and participation in it was regarded as necessary for a great power.


Europe


Last third of 19th century


Economic motives: competition inevitably eliminates inefficient capitalists and leads to monopoly.


The European states swiftly spread their control over about 10 million square miles and 150 million people, about one fifth of the world's land area and one tenth of its population.

Three Emperors' League

3 great conservative empires: Germany, Austria, and Russia.


Germany, Austria, Russia


1873


Bismarck, satisfied with the way Germany was at the moment and wanted no more territorial gains, he wanted to avoid a new war that might undo his achievement.


Formed an alliance with two other great powers to assure Germany's protection, although it collapsed soon after.


Dual Alliance

Alliance between Germany and Austria


Germany and Austria


1879


If another country attacked one of them, each promised at least to maintain neutrality.


The treaty was for five years and was renewed until 1918. Germany never allowed the alliance to drag German into Austria's Balkan quarrels.

Triple Alliance

Alliance of Italy, Germany and Austria


Italy, Germany and Austria


1882


Italy, who was ambitious for colonial expansion and angered by the French occupation of Tunisia, asked to join the Dual Alliance.


Bismarck's policy was now a success with Italy on his side, because he was allied with three of the great powers and friendly with the other (Britain), so he let Italy join.

William II

Ambitious, impetuous, king of Germany


Germany


1888-1918


An injury at birth had left him with a withered left arm, and compensated for this disability with vigorous exercise, a military bearing, and an embarrassingly bombastic rhetoric.


William disagreed with Bismarck, and used the disagreements to dismiss him from power.

The Assasination

A young Serbian nationalist shot Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand.


Bosnian capital, Sarajevo.


Because of the rivalry between Serbia and Austria, the Serbian government played a role in this event, even if it was done by the work of a terrorist society.


It was a society called the Black Hand. While driving in an open car through the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo, the member of the Black Hand shot the Archduke.

Schlieffen Plan

Germany war plan that aimed to end and win the war in about 6 weeks, but ended in a failure.


France, Belgium, Channel, Lorraine.


1891-1906


Count Alfred von Schlieffen came up with this plan in order to draw the French into attack the wrong place while the war was decided on the German right.


It aimed to outflank the French frontier defenses by sweeping through Belgium to the Channel and then wheeling to the south and east to envelop the French and crush them against the German fortresses in Lorraine.

Provision Government

The government that was put into power after Tsar Nicholas II abdicated.


March-November 1917


After tsar Nicholas II abdicated, the government of Russia fell into the hands of members of the Duma, who formed this.


Various socialist groups began to organize soviets, councils of workers and soldiers, allowing this to function without actually supporting it.

V. I. Lenin

Bolshevik leader


Russia


1870-1924


He saw the opportunity to achieve the political alliance of workers and peasants he had discussed before the war.


He tried for a coup and failed, but on his second attempted he succeeded and gained power.

Leon Trotsky

Bolshevik second in command


Russia


1879-1940


He was imprisoned after the first coup with Lenin failed.


Only with his help was Lenin able to achieve the second attempt at the coup, when he was released from prison, leading the powerful Petrograd soviet.

White Russians

Those who were against the revolution in Russia.


Russia


19th-20th century


Were against the Red Russians, who were supportive of the revolution.


Civil war erupted between Red Russians and these people, causing much resistance against the new Bolshevik government.

Fourteen Points

American war aims.


America


19th-20th century


This contained many idealistic principles, such as self determination for nationalities, open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, disarmament, and the establishment of the League of Nations, in order to keep the peace.


President Wilson insisted he would deal only with a democratic German government because he wanted to be sure he was dealing with the German people and no just their rulers.

League of Nations

A body of sovereign states that agreed to pursue common policies and to consult in the common interest, especially when war threatened.


World wide


20th century


The members promised to submit differences among themselves to arbitration, an international court, and even military intervention by the league.


It was unlikely to be effective because it had no armed forces at its disposal.

Reparations

Compensation for war damage.


Europe


20th century


Used against Germany after the war in order to make them pay for all damages done during WWI.


Germany had to pay a huge sum every year.

War Guilt Clause

In the Treaty of Versailles, it blamed Germany for the start of WWI and made them pay the reparations.


Germany


20th century.


Germans were blamed for starting WWI even though they felt wronged about it.


They were forced to agree to the terms and pay for all damages done.