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146 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
they were the targets of the witch hunts
old and poor, but particularly middle-aged, single, or widowed women
harmful magic was called
Malificium (spells and curses)
witches were often called
cunning folk
the belief in witches affected all classes and cultures but the continued fear of witches was spread by
the clergy
witch hunts were practiced by
the church
witchcraft was more commonly practiced where
small villages and the clergy
what was not a problem for James I?
there was no catholic opposition
what political and religious problems did James I inherit?
-huge royal debt
-a divided church
When James I became determined to maintain the Anglican episcopy
puritans began to flee england
The Petition of Right required
-no forced loans or taxation w/o parliament consent
-no imprisonment of any freedom w/o due clause
-troops should not be billeted in private homes
After dissolving Parliament in 1629, Charles I did not call it again until 1640 when
he required funds to crush The Scots religious rebellion
One of the more extra-parlimentary taxes Charles I was called
ship money
the policy of "thorough" refers to
imposed strict efficiency and administrative centralization in govt (goal=absolute control)
Charles I's major opposition leader in parliament was
John Pym
What is the "Long Parliament"
20 yr, called after Scottish invasion, executed both Duke of Strafford and Archbishop Laud, court of High Commission and the Court of the Star chamber were abolished, inland ext of ship money made illegal, parliament could not be dissolved w/o their consent
The "Grand Remonstrance" was
a list of more than 200 grievances against the crown
The "Roundheads" were
supporters of Parliament
The "Cavaliers" were
supporters of Charles
What best explains Parliament's victory in the Civil War?
- alliance w/ scotland concerning presbyterian church governance
-reorganization of Parliamentary Army under Oliver Cromwell
The Solemn League and Covenant was
an agreement that committed Parliament, and the Scots, to a presbyterian system of church governance
Facts about the "Rump Parliament"
- religiously independent
- abolished Monarchy, House of Lords, and Anglican Church
- executed Charles as a public criminal
From 1649 to 1660, England was in fact a military despotism but officially was called a
Puritan Republic
Cromwell's official title was
Lord Protector
Cromwell forced the native Irish Catholics to move west to which Irish province?
Why did Parliament readily support the monarchy of Charles II?
b/c they were dissatisfied w/ the reign of Cromwell
The Clarendon Code was a series of laws which
-excluded catholics, presbyterians, and indepenents (Puritans) from religious and political life of the nation
-fines for non-anglican church attendance
-strict adherence to Book of Common Prayer and 39 Articles
- to serve in gov, must make oath to COE
What did the Navigation Acts lead to?
a series of naval wars btwn Holland and England
What did the Treaty of Dover (1670) do?
made formal alliance btwn France and England against the Dutch
The Test Act of 1672 was aimed at
-Roman Catholics
-required all officials of the Crown, civil and military, to swear an oath against transubstantiation
The Popish Plot was what?
-Titus Oates, liar, swore to magistrate that:
-King's Catholic wife, through her physician, was plotting w/ Jesuits and Irishmen to kill the king and install James II as king
The goal of James II's domestic policies was to
-install absolutism
-subject all English institutions to the power of the monarchy
Politically and legally, the Glorious Revolution replaced who with whom?
James II with William and Mary of Orange
the "traditional liberties" which William of Orange's invasion preserved were
- Anglican Church
- Parliamentary government
The Act of Settlement of 1701 did what?
provided for the English crown to go to the Protestant House of Hanover in Germany if none of the children of Queen Anne(r1702-1714) survived
Which philosopher was most influenced by the Glorious Revolution?
John Locke (Second Treatise of Government)
"Politics Drawn From the Very Words of Holy Scripture" was an endorsement of
divine right monarchy (written by Bishop Jacques Bossuet)
Leviathan was an endorsement of practical absolutism written by
Thomas Hobbes
Royal agents used to enforce the centralized administration of France under Cardinal Richelieu were called
The last serious attempt to limit the power of the French Crown was the revolt of nobles called
The Fronde
One way in which Louis XIV limited the power of high nobility was by
moving lower nobility to positions of importance
The revocation of the Edict of Nantes was ordered in Louis XIV's Edict of
The practice of increasing government regulation to aid the finances of the state is called
the chief architect of French Mercantilism was
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
this man was instrumental in the development of the French army
François Michel Le Tellier, the marquis of Louvois
Nobles participated in demeaning ceremonies in Louis XIV's court because
they wanted titles, offices, and pensions
France failed to conquer the Spanish Netherlands because of
Triple Alliance of the Dutch, English, and Swedes
the coalition that prevented Louis XIV from attaching the Holy Roman Empire to his holdings was called
League of Augsburg
The Peace of Utrecht ended this war
War of the Spanish Succession
the period of anarchy and civil war which followed the reign of Ivan the Terrible was known as
The Time of Troubles
Russian agricultural society was characterized by
the most significant Romanov ruler of the 18th century was
Peter the Great
Which of the following statements best applies to Peter the Great of Russia?
Westernization was predominantly technical, b/c is modernized the army
Peter the Great's cultural reforms:
granted russian women new freedoms, but not complete emancipation
"The Main Business of Natural Philosophy is to argue from Phenomena without feigning Hypothesis, and to deduce Causes from Effects, till we come to the very first Cause, which certainly is not mechanical." This quote encompasses the main beliefs of
Sir Isaac Newton
The baroque style of art developed from
an attempt to combine a classical style w/ extravagance and ornimentation
Spinoza believed that women
were inferior to men
The Scientific Revolution forced Europeans
to change their conception of themselves
The 3 Laws of planetary motion was the work of
Johannes Kepler
The Great Restoration
Sir Francis Bacon
Ethics in Geometrical Manner
Benedict de Spinoza
Sir Isaac Newton
Two Treatises of Government
John Locke
On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres
Nicolaus Copernicus
Wonderful Metamorphosis...of Caterpillars
Maria Sibylla Merian
Discourse on Method
Rene Descartes
On the Motion of Heart and Blod
William Harvey
Thomas Hobbes
On the Fabric of the Human Body
Andreas Vesalius
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
John Locke
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Sir Isaac Newton (aka Principia)
Blaise Pascal
Observations of Experimental Philosophy
Margaret Cavendish
This was an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and scientific method to all aspects of society
The Enlightenment
One reason for the philosophe's call for freedom was that
censorship of their work
The Enlightenment enhanced the culture of
In the "Persian Letters" what did Persia stand for?
Baron de Montesquieu believed that there were 3 types of government: republics, monarchies and ...
Montesquieu's most famous work was
On the Spirit of Laws
the concept of separation of powers would be incorporated in the constitution of
Voltaire was most closely associated with the idea of
religious toleration
Peter the Great's foreign policy had as its primary goal:
secure warm water ports that would allow trade w/ western europe
landowning nobility in russia were called the what?
boyars-controlled the country
the elite military unit stationed in Moscow during the time of Peter the Great was the what?
The Treaty of Karlowitz (1699) gave control of Hungary, Croatia, Slovenia, and Transylvania to
Austria - establishing an Austrian Empire in southeastern Europe
The Duke of Lerma's primary interest was what?
accumulating power and wealth for himself and his family
in order to build Brandenburg-Prussia into a significant European power, Frederick William
had to build a large standing army
Which country exerted the most influence on Italy during the 18th century?
The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic witnessed what?
-a rivalry btwn a monarchial republic and a centralized gov
-a calvinist church w/ religious tolerance
-economic prosperity caused by trade
Why did 17th century governments intervene in the economic affairs of their nations?
b/c they needed funds to maintain large military
Despite military conflicts, by the beginning of the 17th century, European nations treated the Ottoman Empire as
just another European power
Severe political crisis follows the death of King Gustavus Adolphus in
the attempt to synthesize the philosophy of Plato with Christianity was called
a 15th century intellectual movement that saw divinity in all aspects of nature, including alchemy and magic
a new way of thinking about the natural world based on careful observation
Scientific Revolution
Which major contributor to the Scientific Revolution had the most difficulty with Martin Luther?
Which major contributor to the Scientific Revolution had the most difficulty with the Roman Catholic Church?
Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems made an impact on the Roman Catholic Church because
Galileo - Earth moves
Church - no move
Tyco Brahe did most of his work in
Near Copenhagen - Uraniburg
Pantheism is a belief most associated with
Benedicte Spinoza
Scientists were able to communicate with other scientists and with a wider literate audience because of the emergence of
royal societies
The nature and value of women had been the subject of a centuries long debate known as
Cuerelles Des Femmes
by the end of the 18th century these women were merely accessories to the art they once controlled, except for the poor
he urged experimentation and scientific method in all things
Sir Francis Bacon
the philosophy of Rene Descartes
stressed separation of mind and matter
Rene Descartes concept of rationalism can best be expressed as
Cognito ergo sum
the belief of God created the universe and after doing so had no direct involvement in it is called
Denis Diderot's most famous contribution to the Enlightenment was
This group claimed that they could discover the natural laws of economics and that they were demonstrable just like the laws of geometry or algebra
The Physiocrats
Adam Smith's statement on laissez-faire was contained in his book. Smith believed the true source of a nation's wealth was
its labor
The "Social Contract" was written by
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Rousseau criticized most Enlightenment thinkers because on the grounds that they
cared about materialism and progress but not virtue and happiness
Rousseau's ideas about the role of women were strongly challenged by
Mary Wollstonecraft
The supreme power, according to Rousseau, was
the General Will
the woman largely given credit as the founder of European feminism was
Mary Wollstonecraft
this was established in the 17th century by women who wanted the company of men without the demands of sexual love
The Salon
this is the art style that by 1730 began to affect decoration and architecture
John Wesley founded which religion?
"The Messiah" a great oratorio was written by
George Frideric Handel
the most famous Hohenzollern monarch was
Frederick the Great
the war of the Austrian Succession starts when Prussia tries to seize this province
the only ally of Prussia in the Seven Years War was
the ruler of Austria during the Seven Years War was
Maria Theresa
the architect of British victory over the French in the Seven Years War was
William Pitt the Elder
the key North American battle during the 7 Years War was the confrontation between Wolfe and Montcalm at
Plains of Abraham outside Quebec
enlightened despots justified their absolutism by
claimed that they governed in the people's interest
what was the religious position of Prussia and Frederick the Great?
granted religious freedom for all
Which of the following was NOT a reform of Frederick the Great?
agricultural improvements, promoted education, equal treatment under law, religious toleration
Catherine the Great was married to Czar
Peter III
Catherine the Great crushed a Cossack, peasant revolt led by
Emelyan Pugachev
the reforms of Catherine the Great
-in art, literature, science, and greated local gov
-reforms had little value to most Russians the noble (boyars) gained more control over the serfs than they had
Joseph II of Austria subjected the church to state control by
seizing church lands
Which of the following actions did Joseph II take to weaken the noble class?
- taxing them
- cancelled many obligation of their serfs
Enlightened absolutism ultimately failed because it failed to remove the causes of discontent which were
autocracy, class distinctions, unfair taxation, frequent wars, good gov could not be assured after enlightened despot died
military officers were primarily from which social class?
aristocracy or landed nobility
The War of the Austrian Succession ends with this treaty
The Treaty of Aix La Chappelle(1748)
the Seven Years War ends with his treaty
The Treaty of Paris (1763)
the landowning nobility of Prussia is known as
be able to compare Boyars to Junkers
boyars less loyal to the state than Junkers
The Pragmatic Sanction was
-a document of approval
-provided for the recognition of Charles' daughter, Maria Theresa, as the sole heir to the Habsburg throne
one groups domination over another group is called
the two major institutions of Prussia which were the backbone of the nation were
army and the bureaucracy
nationalizing the Catholic Church meant what?
controlling the papacy or controlling the Jesuits or Papal Agents
what was noticeable increased during the 18th century?
reading and publishing
what 17th century introduction proved that popular culture didn't have to rely on oral tradition?
chap books
What change advanced the reputation of surgeons in the 1740's
separated from barbers, went to school, became licensed
What did Beccaria believe was the purpose of capital punishment?
not to be used under any circumstance