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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
who popularized vernacular?
dante, chaucer, martin luther
What was significant about the new monarchs?
they created professional armies, a more centralized government, and new relationships with the catholic church
Examples of New Monarchs?
Charles VII, Louis XI (spider king), Henry VII (star chamber), Ferdinand and Isabella
direct tax on the french peasantry
economic policy of close government regulation of the economy. maximizing exports and limiting imports. importance of colonies for gold and silver
putting-out system
rich urban merchant would bring materials to rural people who worked to make items in their own homes. they would then sell them in the cities
joint stock company
business where many investors raise money for a company. ex: East India Company
French royal officials who supervised the governments of various provinces in the name of the king. It extended the king's power/ affluence. Common of an absolute monarch
a series of rebellions against the monarchy before Louis XIV rose to the throne. This is why Versailles is not located in Paris.
a system of forced labor in eastern Europe
Prussia's landowning nobility, who had power over serfs. Their power was curbed by Frederick William the Great Elector
Scientific/ Empirical method
Developed by Francis Bacon
French enlightened thinkers. Stressed freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system.
general will
Developed by Rousseau, who thought it was very important. Refers to the desire or best interest of a people as a whole
Examples of enlightened despots
Joseph II, Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great.
Characteristics of enlightened despots
religious tolerance, economic success, administrative reform, territorial expansion, scientific academies.
French economists that criticized mercantilism and called for free trade.
french regional courts dominated by nobles
Levee en masse
French policy of drafting all males into the army.
Thermidorian Reaction
reaction against the radicalism of the Reign of Terror. signaled the establishment of the Directory and reassertion of the bourgoise
Balance of Power
weak countries join together to match the power of a stronger country. (seen in the treaty of spanish succession..?)
French philosopher and mathematician. Used deductive reasoning from self-evident principles to reach scientific laws.
Polish astronomer, developed a new heliocentric theory and wrote "On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies"
Enlightened thinker best known for writing "The Social Contract" & "Emile". Believed that since "law is the expression of the general will," the state is based on social contract. Emphasized the education of the whole person for citizenship. Rejected excessive rationalism and stressed emotions, thus anticipating the romantic movement. Man is innately born good.
Mary Wollstonecraft
British writer, philosopher, and feminist who wrote "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman." Argued that women are not naturally inferior to men. Maintained that women deserve the same fundamental rights as men.
Niccolo Machiavelli
wrote "The Prince"; it is better to be feared than to be loved
Northern humanist who wrote "In Praise of Folly" in Latin. Wanted to reform, not destroy, the Church
Isaac Newton
Wrote "Principa", illustrating principles of gravity and inertia, strongly influenced Deism
John Locke
thought of the concept of "the tabula rosa", or "blank slate". Believed government should protect life, liberty, and property. Influenced the American Declaration of Independence
Adam Smith
established idea of "invisible hand" economic policy
Francis Bacon
Established ideas of scientific/empirical method
Johannes Kepler
assistant to Tycho Brahe (the guy with the pet reindeer and gold nose). Planets move in elliptical orbits, not circular ones
Edmund Burke
Englishman who wrote reflections on the French Revolution
Michel de Montaigne
Developed the essay form of writing
French philosphe who wrote essays and letters emphasizing liberty, reason, progress, and toleration
English political philosopher who wrote "Leviathan". Viewed human beings as naturally self centered and prone to violence. Feared the dangers of anarchy more than the dangers of tyranny.
Louis XIV
"The Sun King". Absolute French monarch, didn't call the Esates General into session once during his reign, curbed power of nobles, extended land of the French Empire until the Spanish Succession when he was told to stop by other countries. France was ruled by Cardinal Richleau before Louis XIV
Catherine the Great
she and her lover conspire to kill her husband Peter III. Wanted to Westernize russia, expand territory, and have domestic reform. conditions for serfs worsened after the Pugachev rebellion. Jews gain equality. Annexed Polish territory.
Charles V
Hapsburg HRE under the reformation when Martin Luther was around. Held Diet of Worms to go against Luther, which went wrong. Big supporter of Catholicism. War with France in Hapsburg-Valois Wars.
Frederick William I
Prussian. son of Frederick William the Great Elector. Abolished serfdom, formed General Directory where he had to approve all laws, first thing he wanted to do was establish a great standing army
Frederick William the "Great Elector"
Prussian. Saw himself as a "servant of the state". Had religious toleration, promotion of education, reformed court system with abolished torture.
Elizabeth I
Beat the Spanish Armada, which sent Spain into a decline of power. Renaissance queen. Loved Shakespeare, father was Henry VIII and sister was Bloody Mary. Mary Queen of Scots tried to kill her.
Stuart Monarchs
ruled with divine right under Elizabeth I. Very weak monarchy. James I and Charles I
Maria Theresa
Succeeds to the Austrian throne because of her father Charles VI and the Pragmatic Sanction. Strengthened bureaucracy, taxed nobles, helped serfs
War of Austrian Succession
Maria Theresa looses land to Frederick II of Prussia
Joseph II
Son of Maria Theresa, "enlightened monarch"; tragically ahead of his time: religious tolerance, abolishment of serfdom, educational reforms, state should rule by reason. Many of his innovations had to be undone by his brother Leopoldo
monarchy is best form of government and monarchy acts on best interest of the public good
Diet of Augsburg
Held by Charles V, Augsburg confession lays out what the Protestant faith is
Edict of Nantes
Protestants can practice faith in specific towns
Concordat of Bologna
French king can appoint bishops and pope gets first year salary from each bishop
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Daughter of Catherine de Medici (protestant) marries Henry of Navarre (Protestant-Huguenot), and the catholic and protestant guests at the wedding start killing each other
Stuart Monarch's rule leads to English Civil War: Causes? (think of religion and Parliament)
Religion: Lower-lever aristocrats, or gentry, become more protestant and have protestant work ethic. James I and Charles I are Catholic.
Lack of Parliament's Consent: Parliament opposed to the Stuart Monarch's rule. Stuart Monarchs don't want to use parliament
Charles I dissolves parliament twice. Puritains gain majority in Parliament
Charles I declares war on enemies in Parliament
Puritains/ those in parliament who are in opposition to Charles I
people who were for the aristocracy and monarchy
Basics of 4 Phases of the 30 Years War
(Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, French)
BOH: Hapsburg Ferdinand II becomes HRE. Doesn't want any protestant churches on his land. Leads to Defenestration of Prague. Protestant rebels defeated at Battle of White Mountain
DAN: Defeat of Protestants in North and Catholics are restored all land that was lost
SWEL: Change from religious to territorial war, France and Sweden get involved
FRE: most destructive phase.
Peace of Westphalia
Ends 30 Years War. States ruler of each state can determine the official religion, but must permit private worship. Switzerland becomes independent of HRE.
100 Years War
Last battle of the Middle Ages. Determines importance of infantry, longbows, and less of a need for knights. Territorial dispute between France and England. France wins at Battle of Orleans.