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71 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
acute pain
Pain that typically follows an injury and disappears once the injury heals or is effectively treated.
AIDS-related complex (ARC)
Group of minor health problems such as weight loss, fever, and night sweats that appears after HIV infection but before development of full-blown AIDS.
angina pectoris
Chest pain caused by partial blockage of the arteries that supply blood to the heart.
Highly specific molecules called immunoglobulins produced by B cells to combine with and neutralize antigens.
Foreign materials that enter the body, including bacteria and parasites.
Irregular heartbeat.
assertiveness training
Instruction in which individuals learn to cope with stress by rehearsing ways to protect their time and personal rights in appropriate ways to avoid being exploited and feeling used. For example, caregivers of people with Alzheimer''s disease learn assertion to prevent them from resorting to abuse in frustration.
Process by which a fatty substance or plaque builds up inside arteries to form obstructions.
autoimmune disease
Condition in which the body''s immune system attacks healthy tissue rather than antigens.
B cells
Special type of white blood cells produced in bone marrow. They release into the humoral branch of the immune system molecules that circulate in the blood to seek, identify, and neutralize antigens.
behavioral medicine
Interdisciplinary approach applying behavioral science to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems.
Use of physiological monitoring equipment to make individuals aware of their own bodily functions, such as blood pressure or brain waves, that they cannot normally access, with the purpose of controlling these functions.
Category of often-fatal medical conditions involving abnormal cell growth and malignancy.
cardiovascular disease
Afflictions in the mechanisms, including the heart, blood vessels, and their controllers, responsible for transporting blood to the body''s tissues and organs. Psychological factors may play important roles in such diseases and their treatments.
cardiovascular system
Heart, blood vessels, and their controlling mechanisms, all of which transport blood and nutrients to the tissues of the body.
cellular branch
Branch of the immune system using specialized cells to protect the body cells against viral and parasite infections.
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
Incapacitating exhaustion following only minimal exertion, accompanied by fever, headaches, muscle and joint pain, depression, and anxiety.
chronic pain
Enduring pain that does not decrease over time; may occur in muscles, joints, and the lower back, and may be caused by enlarged blood vessels or degenerating or cancerous tissue. Other significant factors are social and psychological.
community intervention
Approach to treating and preventing disorders by directing action at the organizational, agency, and community levels rather than at individuals.
coronary heart disease (CHD)
Blockage of the arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle; a major cause of death in Western culture, with social and psychological factors involved.
corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)
Neuromodulator hormone secreted into the blood by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the pituitary gland as part of a reaction chain called the stress response. It may be implicated in mood disorders, as well as physical problems.
diastolic blood pressure
Blood pressure level when the heart is at rest or between heartbeats.
dorsal horns of the spinal cord
Sections of the spinal cord responsible for transmitting sensory input to the brain. They function as a gate that allows transmission of pain sensations if the stimulation is sufficiently intense.
endogenous opioids
Substances occurring naturally throughout the body that function like neurotransmitters to shut down pain sensation even in the presence of marked tissue damage. These may contribute to psychological problems such as eating disorders. Also known as endorphins or enkephalins.
See endogenous opioids.
See endogenous opioids.
Learned negative reaction to or attitude about sexual activity, perhaps developed as a result of a negative or even traumatic event, such as rape.
essential hypertension
High blood pressure with no verifiable physical cause, which makes up the overwhelming majority of high blood pressure cases.
gate control theory of pain
View that psychological factors can enhance or diminish the sensation and perception of pain by influencing the transmission of pain impulses through the section of the spinal cord that acts as a gate.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Sequence of reactions to sustained stress described by Hans Selye. These stages are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion, which may lead to death.
genital herpes
Incurable sexually transmitted viral disease with alternating periods of dormancy and activity. The active periods involve pain, liquid discharge, itching, and ulcerative lesions, and their recurrence may be influenced by stress.
health psychology
Subfield of behavioral medicine that studies psychological factors important in health promotion and maintenance.
helper T cells
T-type lymphocyte that enhances the immune system response by signaling B cells to produce antibodies and other T cells to destroy antigens.
high blood pressure
See hypertension.
Major risk factor for stroke and heart and kidney disease that is intimately related to psychological factors. Also known as high blood pressure.
immune system
Body''s means of identifying and eliminating any foreign materials (for example, bacteria, parasites, and even transplanted organs) that enter.
Narrowing of arteries caused by plaque buildup within the arteries.
large fibers
Nerve fibers in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord that regulate the pattern and intensity of pain sensations. They close the gate, decreasing the transmission of painful stimuli.
White blood cells of varying types that play specialized roles in the immune system to fight viral and parasitic infections.
memory B cells
Specialized lymphocytes created after antigens are neutralized to help the immune system fight off new invasions by those antigens more rapidly. These account for the effectiveness of inoculations.
myocardial infarction
Death of heart tissue when its blood supply artery is blocked by plaque or a blood clot.
Most widely used opiate antagonist drug. It produces immediate withdrawal and, thus, a great deal of discomfort. It may also contribute to the treatment of alcohol abuse but is not as successful for either substance as was originally hoped.
Disorder common in the United States in the mid-1800s; the label is no longer used here (although it is still prevalent in China). Its symptoms include a lack of energy, a variety of aches and pains, and sometimes fever. This disorder is similar to present-day chronic fatigue syndrome.
See neuromodulators.
nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT)
Erection of the penis during sleep, usually rapid eye movement sleep. If this normal reaction occurs in a man with erectile problems in the waking state, his problems may be assumed to have psychological origins.
pain behaviors
Observable manifestations of the private experience of pain. These may include wincing or other facial expressions, verbal complaints of distress, and avoidance of activities that increase pain sensations.
Vasodilating medication used to treat male erectile disorder by dilating blood vessels, increasing blood flow to the penis to form an erection. The medication must be injected, and the procedure can be painful. It is so intrusive that it is often declined or discontinued by patients.
penile strain gauge
Psychophysiological monitoring device that measures male sexual arousal by changes in penis circumference.
phantom limb pain
Perception of pain in a limb that is absent because of amputation. This phenomenon suggests pain is not entirely a physical experience.
Study of psychological factors involved in the course and treatment of cancer.
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
Study of psychological influences on the neurological responding involved in the body''s immune response.
psychophysiological disorders
Outdated term, similar to psychosomatic medicine, for the study of psychological and social factors influencing physical disorders. The term is misleading because it falsely implies that other psychological problems, such as mood disorders, do not have significant biological components.
psychosomatic medicine
See behavioral medicine.
Raynaud''s disease
Cardiovascular disease involving blockage of blood circulation to the extremities, with resultant pain and cold sensations in the hands and feet.
relaxation response
Active components of meditation methods, including repetitive thoughts of a sound to reduce distracting thoughts and closing the mind to other intruding thoughts, that decrease the flow of stress hormones and neurotransmitters and cause a feeling of calm.
retarded ejaculation
Male orgasmic disorder in which ejaculation is delayed; thus, the patient is unable to reach orgasm with his partner, although he is able to ejaculate during masturbation.
retrograde ejaculation
Condition in which ejaculatory fluids travel backward into the bladder, usually as a result of certain drugs or a medical condition. This is not considered a DSM-IV-TR male orgasmic disorder.
rheumatoid arthritis
Painful, degenerative disease in which the immune system essentially attacks itself, resulting in stiffness, swelling, and even destruction of the joints. Cognitive-behavioral treatments can help relieve pain and stiffness.
Perception of having the ability to cope with stress or challenges.
small fibers
Nerve fibers in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord that regulate the pattern and intensity of pain sensations. They open the gate, increasing the transmission of painful stimuli.
Body''s physiological response to a stressor, which is any event or change that requires adaptation.
stress hormones
Group of hormones, including corticosteroids, involved in the body''s physiological stress response.
stress physiology
Study of the body''s response to stressful events.
stroke/cerebral vascular accident (CVA)
Temporary blockage of blood vessels supplying the brain, or a rupture of vessels in the brain, resulting in temporary or permanent loss of brain functioning.
systolic blood pressure
Blood pressure generated when the heart is at work pumping blood.
T cells
Lymphocytes produced in bone marrow, developed in the thymus gland, and operating in the cellular branch of the immune system. Some attack antigens directly; others help regulate the system.
time-management training
Instruction that teaches patients to deal with stress by establishing priorities among activities and demands and paying less attention to the less important ones.
transcendental meditation
Technique for focusing attention by softly repeating a single syllable (mantra); often accompanied by slow and regular breathing.
type A behavior pattern
Cluster of behaviors including excessive competitiveness, time-pressured impatience, accelerated speech, and anger, originally thought to promote high risk for heart disease.
type B behavior pattern
Cluster of behaviors including a relaxed attitude, indifference to time pressure, and less forceful ambition; originally thought to promote low risk for heart disease.
vaginal photoplethysmograph
Light-sensitive psychophysiological monitoring device that measures female sexual arousal reflected by blood flow to the vagina.