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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
altruistic suicide
Formalized suicide approved of and even expected by some cultures.
anomic suicide
Suicide motivated by loss and confusion caused by a major life disruption.
atypical depressive episode
Depressive episode characterized by some ability to experience interest and pleasure, increased anxiety, overeating, and oversleeping.
bipolar I disorder
Alternation of major depressive episodes with full manic episodes.
bipolar II disorder
Alternation of major depressive episodes with hypomanic episodes (not full manic episodes).
Motor movement disturbance seen in people with some psychoses and mood disorders in which body postures are waxy and can be sculpted to remain fixed for long periods.
cognitive restructuring
Cognitive therapy procedure used to change negative or unrealistic thoughts or attributions.
cognitive therapy
Treatment approach that involves identifying and altering negative thinking styles related to psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety and replacing them with more positive beliefs and attitudesand, ultimately, more adaptive behavior and coping styles.
cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT)
Group of treatment procedures aimed at identifying and modifying faulty thought processes, attitudes and attributions, and problem behaviors; often used synonymously with cognitive therapy.
Hormones, including cortisol, released by the adrenal gland in response to stressors to activate and, later, to turn off the body''s stress response. Also called stress hormones.
Stress hormone (corticosteroid) secreted by the cortex of the adrenal glands as part of the stress response.
course modifiers
Patterns of development in a disorder that help predict its future course. These include recurrence, time sequences, and seasonal pattern.
cyclothymic disorder
Chronic (at least 2 years) mood disorder characterized by alternating mood elevation and depression levels that are not as severe as manic or major depressive episodes.
Psychotic symptom involving disorder of thought content and presence of strong beliefs that are misrepresentations of reality.
depressive cognitive triad
Thinking errors in depressed people negatively focused in three areas: themselves, their immediate world, and their future.
depressive stupor (catatonic depressive episode)
Rare but severe depressive episode experienced by someone with a mood disorder, featuring, usually, substantial reduction in spontaneous motor movement or, occasionally, agitation or odd mannerisms.
dexamethasone suppression test (DST)
Proposed biological test used to depress cortisol secretion.
double depression
Severe mood disorder typified by major depressive episodes superimposed over a background of dysthymic disorder.
dysfunctional attitudes
Cognitive errors seen in depressed individuals, who may automatically assume the worst, draw negative conclusions arbitrarily, and treat minor problems as major ones.
dysphoric manic episode
See mixed manic episode.
dysthymic disorder
Mood disorder involving persistently depressed mood, with low self-esteem, withdrawal, pessimism, or despair, present for at least 2 years, with no absence of symptoms for more than 2 months.
egoistic suicide
Suicide that occurs in the context of diminished social supports, as in the case of some elderly people who have lost friends and family contacts.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
Biological treatment for severe, chronic depression involving the application of electrical impulses through the brain to produce seizures. The reasons for its effectiveness are unknown.
fatalistic suicide
Suicide in the context of a person''s hopelessness and loss of the feeling of control over personal destiny.
Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (trade name Prozac) that acts on the serotonergic system as a treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and bulimia nervosa.
Psychotic symptoms of perceptual disturbance in which things are seen, heard, or otherwise sensed although they are not actually present.
hypomanic episode
Less severe and less disruptive version of a manic episode that is one of the criteria for several mood disorders.
interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT)
Brief treatment approach that emphasizes resolution of interpersonal problems and stressors, such as role disputes, in marital conflict or forming relationships in marriage or a new job. It has demonstrated effectiveness for such problems as depression.
interpersonal therapy
Brief, structured treatment that focuses on teaching a person skills to improve existing relationships or develop new ones.
learned helplessness
Martin Seligman''s theory that people become anxious and depressed when they make an attribution that they have no control over the stress in their lives (whether or not they do in reality).
lithium carbonate
Common salt used in substantial doses to treat bipolar disorder. Clients often discontinue its use because they enjoy the manic periods, and relapse rates are high. The mechanism for its effects is unknown.
longitudinal course
Time patterns among mood disorders (for example, prior dysthymia or cyclothymia rapid cycling and seasonal pattern) that may suggest their course, treatment, and prognosis.
maintenance treatment
Combination of continued psychosocial treatment, medication, or both designed to prevent relapse following therapy.
major depressive disorder, single or recurrent episode
Mood disorder involving one (single episode) or more (separated by at least 2 months without depressionrecurrent) major depressive episodes.
major depressive episode
Most common and severe experience of depression, including feelings of worthlessness, disturbances in bodily activities such as sleep, loss of interest, and inability to experience pleasure, persisting at least 2 weeks.
manic episode
Period of abnormally elevated or irritable mood that may include inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, pressured speech, flight of ideas, agitation, or self-destructive behavior.
marital therapy
Interventions for the relationship problems of couples, whether married or not.
mixed manic episode
Condition in which the individual experiences both elation and depression or anxiety at the same time. Also known as dysphoric manic episode.
mood congruent
Consistent with the person''s emotional level. Hallucinations and delusions may be congruent or incongruent with a depressed person''s mood (contrast with mood incongruent).
mood disorders
Group of disorders involving severe and enduring disturbances in emotionality ranging from elation to severe depression.
mood incongruent
Not consistent with the person''s emotional level. Psychotic symptoms associated with mood disorders may not be congruent with the person''s mood (contrast with mood congruent).
negative affect
Emotional symptoms that are part of the definition of both anxiety and depression but are not specific to either of these. Also, substance abuse may be maintained because the substance causes an escape from unpleasant circumstances, responsibilities, or, especially, feelings.
negative schema
Automatic, enduring, and stable negative cognitive bias or belief system about some aspect of life.
Hormones that affect the brain and are increasingly the focus of study in psychopathology.
Hormones secreted into the blood to transmit brain messages throughout the body. Also known as neuropeptides.
pathological or impacted grief reaction
Extreme reaction to the death of a loved one that involves psychotic features, suicidal ideation, or severe loss of weight or energy or that persists more than 2 months.
Treatment of seasonal affective disorder with large doses of exposure to bright light.
postpartum onset
Disorder that first appears in mothers during the time immediately following childbirth.
psychological autopsy
Postmortem psychological profile of a suicide victim constructed from interviews with people who knew the person before death.
rapid cycling
Temporal course of a bipolar disorder when transitions between mania and depression are quick, occurring four or more times in 1 year.
Reappearance of or return to problem behaviors after treatment or recovery.
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Mood disorder involving a cycling of episodes corresponding to the seasons of the year, typically with depression occurring during the winter.
seasonal pattern
Temporal course of bipolar or recurrent major depressive disorders in which episodes occur during particular seasons of the year.
serotonin reuptake blockers
See serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors.
serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Class of medications for depression (including Prozac) that act on the serotonergic system by inhibiting the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
somatic delusions
False and unfounded beliefs about the bodyfor example, that parts are rotting or turning to stone.
somatic treatments
Biological interventions that include medication, electroconvulsive therapy, and psychosurgery.
In mood disorders, patterns of characteristics that sometimes accompany major depressive or manic episodes and may help predict their course and prognosis. These include psychotic, melancholic, atypical, catatonic, chronic, and with postpartum onset.
stress hormones
Group of hormones, including corticosteroids, involved in the body''s physiological stress response.
suicidal attempts
Efforts made to kill oneself.
suicidal ideation
Serious thoughts about committing suicide.
temporal patterning
Course modifier for mood disorders describing their time sequences, including recurrence, recovery, and alternation.
unipolar mood disorder
Mood disorder characterized by depression or mania but not both. Most cases involve unipolar depression.