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65 Cards in this Set

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Small electronic device that is worn on the wrist like a watch and records body movements. This device can be used to record sleepwake cycles.
advanced sleep phase type
Type of circadian rhythm problem, not a DSM-IV-TR disorder, involving a persistent pattern of early sleep onset and awakening times.
Stimulant medication used to treat hypersomnia by keeping the person awake during the day, and to treat narcolepsy, including sudden onset episodes, by suppressing rapid eye movement sleep.
anorexia nervosa
Eating disorder characterized by recurrent food refusal, leading to dangerously low body weight.
See sleep apnea.
bariatric surgery
Surgical approach to extreme obesity, usually accomplished by stapling the stomach to create a small stomach pouch or bypassing the stomach through gastric bypass surgery.
Relatively brief episode of uncontrolled, excessive consumption, usually of food or alcohol.
binge-eating disorder (BED)
Pattern of eating involving distress-inducing binges not followed by purging behaviors; being considered as a new DSM diagnostic category.
breathing-related sleep disorders
Sleep disruption leading to excessive sleepiness or insomnia, caused by a breathing problem such as interrupted (sleep apnea) or labored (hypoventilation) breathing.
bulimia nervosa
Eating disorder involving recurrent episodes of uncontrolled excessive (binge) eating followed by compensatory actions to remove the food (for example, deliberate vomiting, laxative abuse, and excessive exercise).
Sudden loss of muscle tone that accompanies narcolepsy.
central sleep apnea
Brief periods of cessation in respiratory activity during sleep that may be associated with central nervous system disorders. Most clients awaken often as a result but do not report sleepiness and may be unaware of any problem.
circadian rhythm sleep disorders
Sleep disturbances resulting in sleepiness or insomnia, caused by the body''s inability to synchronize its sleep patterns with the current pattern of day and night.
deep sleep
Sleep stage characterized by slow brain-wave (delta wave) patterns. A person in deep sleep is difficult to rouse and slow to become alert.
delayed sleep phase type of circadian rhythm sleep disorder
Persistent pattern of late sleep onset and awakening time.
desire phase
First stage of sexual activity, when sexual urges, thoughts, or fantasies occur, either in reaction to or even in the absence of a stimulating cue.
Problems in getting to sleep or in obtaining sufficient quality sleep.
Measure of electrical activity generated by heart muscle exertion used to detect and evaluate heart diseases.
electromyogram (EMG)
Measure of muscle movement.
electrooculogram (EOG)
Measure of eye muscle movement particularly relevant to detecting dream stages during sleep.
Long-acting medication for insomnia (trade name Dalmane) that may cause daytime sleepiness.
graduated extinction
Monitoring of a desired behavior, such as sleeping or compliance by children, with decreasing frequency to encourage independence.
Abnormally excessive sleep. A person with this condition will fall asleep several times a day.
hypnagogic hallucinations
Characteristic of narcolepsy involving frightening and vivid experiences during sleep that are visual, tactile, aural, and mobile.
Reduced or labored breathingfor example, during sleep.
isolated sleep paralysis
A period of time upon going to sleep or upon awakening in which a person cannot perform voluntary movements.
jet lag type of circadian rhythm sleep disorder
Disorder in which sleepiness and alertness patterns conflict with local time and occur after recent or repeated travel across time zones.
Medication that helps stimulate respiration and is used in treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.
Hormone produced by the pineal gland that is activated by darkness to control the body''s biological clock and to induce sleep. It is implicated in seasonal affective disorder and may be used in treatments for circadian rhythm sleep disorder.
Stimulant medicine (trade name Ritalin) used to treat hypersomnia (by keeping the person awake during the day); narcolepsy, including that with sudden onset (by suppressing rapid eye movement sleep); and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Short, seconds-long periods of sleep that occur in people who have been deprived of sleep.
mixed sleep apnea
Combination of obstructive and central sleep apnea, such as brief interruptions in breathing during sleep caused by a blocked air passage and by cessation in respiratory activity.
Sleep disorder involving sudden and irresistible sleep attacks.
night eating syndrome
Consuming a third or more of daily food intake after the evening meal and getting out of bed at least once during the night to have a high-calorie snack. In the morning, however, individuals with night eating syndrome are not hungry and do not usually eat breakfast. These individuals do not binge during their night eating and seldom purge.
Frightening and anxiety-provoking dreams occurring during rapid eye movement sleep. The individual recalls the bad dreams and recovers alertness and orientation quickly.
nocturnal enuresis
Urination while sleeping.
nondemand pleasuring
Procedure to reestablish sexual arousal involving fondling and caressing while intercourse is forbidden. This method avoids the anxiety provoked by the need to perform sexually.
nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep
Periods in the sleep cycle, divided into four substages, when the body may be active while the brain is relatively less active and dreaming does not occur.
Excess of body fat resulting in a body mass index (BMI, a ratio of weight to height) of 30 or more.
obstructive sleep apnea
Snoring and brief interruptions in breathing during sleep caused by blockage of the airway.
Abnormal behaviors such as nightmares or sleepwalking that occur during sleep.
polysomnographic (PSG) evaluation
Assessment of sleep disorders in which a client sleeping in the lab is monitored for heart, muscle, respiration, brain wave, and other functions.
primary insomnia
Difficulty in initiating, maintaining, or gaining from sleep; not related to other medical or psychological problems.
purging techniques
In the eating disorder bulimia nervosa, the self-induced vomiting or laxative abuse used to compensate for excessive food ingestion.
rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
Periodic intervals of sleep during which the eyes move rapidly from side to side, and dreams occur, but the body is inactive.
rebound insomnia
In a person with insomnia, the worsened sleep problems that can occur when medications are used to treat insomnia and then withdrawn.
scheduled awakening
For children who wake frequently at night, awakening them about an hour before their usual times and from a deeper sleep than usual to help them learn to fall asleep on their own.
script theory
Theory of sexual functioning that suggests people''s sexual behavior and attitudes are guided by scripts reflecting social and cultural expectations. Negative scripts may increase vulnerability to the development of sexual dysfunction.
sensate focus
Sex therapy in which couples concentrate on pleasurable sensations from caressing and fondling. Intercourse is forbidden to prevent focus on sexual performance and the anxiety it may provoke.
shift work type
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomnia during sleep time and sleepiness during wake time because of late-shift work or frequent work shift changes.
sleep apnea
Disorder involving brief periods when breathing ceases during sleep.
sleep attacks
Unexpected episodes of falling asleep during the day.
sleep efficiency (SE)
Percentage of time actually spent sleeping of the total time spent in bed.
sleep hygiene
Psychological treatment for insomnia that teaches clients to recognize and eliminate environmental obstacles to sleep. These include the use of nicotine, caffeine, certain medications, and alcohol, as well as ill-timed exercise.
sleep paralysis
Brief and frightening period at the beginning or end of sleep when the individual cannot move or speak; sometimes mistaken for nocturnal panic attack.
sleep restriction
Treatment for insomnia that involves limiting time in bed to the actual amount spent sleeping so that the bed is associated with sleep and no other competing activities.
sleep stress
Environmental events, such as ingesting excess caffeine, that can affect sleep negatively.
sleep terrors
Episodes of apparent awakening from sleep, accompanied by signs of panic, followed by disorientation and amnesia for the incident. These occur during nonrapid eye movement sleep and so do not involve frightening dreams.
Parasomnia that involves leaving the bed during nonrapid eye movement sleep. See also somnambulism.
slow wave sleep
See delta waves.
Repeated sleepwalking that occurs during nonrapid eye movement sleep and so is not the acting out of a dream. The person is difficult to waken and does not recall the experience.
stimulus control
Deliberate arrangement of the environment so that it encourages desired behaviors and discourages problem behaviors. For example, insomnia may be combated by limiting time in, and associations with, the bed.
total sleep time
Actual combined time a person spends sleeping each day.
Short-acting benzodiazepine medication (trade name Halcion) used to treat insomnia. Possible negative side effects include drowsiness, dependence, short-term memory loss, or rebound.
tricyclic antidepressants
Most common treatment for depression, a group of medications including imipramine and amitriptyline that block the reuptake of neurotransmitters, principally serotonin and norepinephrine, at the synapse. The drugs are effective for some anxiety disorders and mood disorders. They are also used to treat obstructive sleep apnea because they help maintain respiratory muscle tone to assist breathing during rapid eye movement sleep. Positive effects are delayed, and negative side effects may include dizziness and even death, so close monitoring is required. Relapse rates range from 20% to 50% when the drug is stopped.