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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Inability to recognize and name objects; may be a symptom of dementia or other brain disorders.
Alzheimer''s disease
Strange disease of the cerebral cortex that causes an atypical form of senile dementia, discovered in 1906 by German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer.
amnestic disorder
Deterioration in the ability to transfer information from short- to long-term memory, in the absence of other dementia symptoms, as a result of head trauma or drug abuse.
amyloid plaque
Clusters of dead neurons found during autopsy in the brains of people with Alzheimer''s disease. Also known as neuritic or senile plaque.
Impairment or loss of language skills resulting from brain damage caused by stroke, Alzheimer''s disease, or other illness or trauma.
apolipoprotein E (apo E)
Protein involved in the transport of cholesterol. High concentration of one subtype, controlled by a gene on chromosome 19, is associated with Alzheimer''s disease.
assertiveness training
Instruction in which individuals learn to cope with stress by rehearsing ways to protect their time and personal rights in appropriate ways to avoid being exploited and feeling used. For example, caregivers of people with Alzheimer''s disease learn assertion to prevent them from resorting to abuse in frustration.
Slowed body movements, as occur in Parkinson''s disease.
Motor problems characterized by involuntary limb movements.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Extremely rare condition that causes dementia. Linked to mad cow disease.
Rapid-onset reduced clarity of consciousness and cognition, with confusion, disorientation, and deficits in memory and language.
Gradual-onset deterioration of brain functioning, involving memory loss, inability to recognize objects or faces, and problems in planning and abstract reasoning. These are associated with frustration and discouragement.
dementia of the Alzheimer''s type
Gradual onset of cognitive deficits caused by Alzheimer''s disease, principally identified by a person''s inability to recall newly or previously learned material. The most common form of dementia.
In genetics, genes that lead to nearly a 100% chance of developing the associated disorder. These are rare in the population.
facial agnosia
Type of agnosia characterized by a person''s inability to recognize even familiar faces.
head trauma
Injury to the head and, therefore, to the brain, typically caused by accidents; can lead to cognitive impairments, including memory loss.
human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l)
Disease that causes AIDS.
Huntington''s disease
Genetic disorder marked by involuntary limb movements and progressing to dementia.
multiple infarctions
More than one area or incident of death to tissue (for example, in the brain or heart) because of blockage of blood flow.
neuritic plaque
See amyloid plaque.
neurofibrillary tangles
Brain damage in the form of large numbers of strandlike filaments found during autopsy in people with Alzheimer''s disease.
Parkinson''s disease
Degenerative brain disorder principally affecting motor performance (for example, tremors and stooped posture) associated with reduction in dopamine. Dementia may be a result as well.
Pick''s disease
Rare neurological disorder that results in presenile dementia.
presenile dementia
Dementia that appears before old age, between 40 and 60 years.
subcortical dementia
Disease affecting the inner areas of the brain below the cortex. It differs from dementia of the Alzheimer''s type in that it involves impaired recall but normal recognition, more severe depression and anxiety, slowed motions, and impaired coordination but no aphasia.
In genetics, genes that only slightly increase the risk of developing the disorder, but in contrast to the deterministic genes, these are more common in the general population.
tacrine hydrochloride
Medication for patients with Alzheimer''s disease that prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine, keeping it available for use by the brain. Improvements are small, and the drug is expensive and causes serious side effects.
Pertaining to the vessels that transport blood and other fluids in the body.
vascular dementia
Progressive brain disorder involving loss of cognitive functioning, caused by blockage of blood flow to the brain, that appears concurrently with other neurological signs and symptoms.