Essay on Biology Exam Review 2009

1879 Words Aug 10th, 2012 8 Pages
Term 1 topics (30% of the exam):

• Skeleton

• Muscles

• Nervous System

• The Brain

Skeleton and Muscles

• Skeletal system is all the bones in the body and the tissues that connect them

• Average human has 206 bones

• Bones:

- Composed of living cells

- Has protein called collagen, which makes it strong (Collagen: strong fibers)

- Contain calcium sulphate and phosphorous which makes it hard

- 2 types: compact bone (outer layer, dense and hard), spongy bone (inner layer, consist of fine struts of bone, forms the red bone marrow)

• Cartilage (soft bone):

- Firm but softer than bone, cartilage is rubbery while bone is firm

- Has collagen
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EX: shoulder, knee

- Hinge joint- allows movement in only one direction. EX: elbow, knee, ankle, in b/n the fingers

- Pivot joint- allows bone to move in rotationally. EX: elbow, neck

- Gliding joint

- Fixed joint- provides very slight or no movement at all

• What are found in a healthy joint?

- Smooth cartilage

- Synovial fluid- thin lubricating fluid, acts a cushion and reduces friction

- Ligaments

- Fibrous tissue



• Muscles are made of groups of cells called fibres

• Muscles attached to the bones move the body by pushing and pulling movements

• 3 kinds of muscles in our body:

- Voluntary

- Involuntary

- Cardiac

• Voluntary:

- Muscles that you can control as you wish

- Attached to your bones, will pull your bones when you decide them to move. This cause the joint to bend

- Work quickly and powerfully

- Get tired easily

- EX: moves your legs when you run

• Involuntary:

- Uncontrollable by you

- Work on their own

- Present in the

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