4.1.2 Pipelined ADC
The pipelined ADC is one of the most popular ADC architecture. The pipelined ADC architecture is similar to the sub-ranging ADC. The architecture of pipelined ADC is implemented by at least two or more low resolution flash ADCs. The pipelined ADC works from few M samples to more than hundred of M samples with resolution from 8 bit to 16 bits. Due to its high resolution and sampling rate range it is widely used in medical and communication applications like as CCD imaging, base station, ultrasonic medical imaging, DSL, cable modem, digital receiver, digital video (HDTV) and fast Ethernet .
Fig. 4.5. Block diagram of a pipelined ADC
Figure 4.5 Shows the complete architecture of the pipelined ADC. A sample and hold circuit is connected to each stage. The sample and hold circuit hold the amplified residue from the previous stage. After that the input is fed to the low resolution ADC which generates a segmented binary output. Similar to the sub-ranging ADC the segmented output is changed into analog signal and is subtracted from the input. Then the amplifier amplify the residue and sent to the next stage. The segmented binary outputs from each stage are time-aligned with a shift resister. Finally the binary output is obtained after passing through digital error correction logic.
4.1.3 Successive Approximation ADC
The successive approximation register (SAR) – commonly known as successive approximation converter. The…
The devices that were huge in the earlier days have been reduced by a huge scale to fulfill the technology scaling demand and to maintain a balance between the device functionality and performance, but also obey Moore’s Law. In order to achieve these requirements, the fabrication process has been altered according to different designs. The reliability issues caused by increased temperatures and factors like soft errors and negative-bias temperature instability (NBTI) are…
In 1959, metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) was invented by Dawon Kahng and Martin M. (John) Atalla at Bell Labs. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld had already patented the basic principle of this kind of transistor in 1925. But later the Bell Labs edition was allocated the name bipolar junction transistor, or merely junction transistor, and design of Lilienfeld came to be identified as field effect transistor. Later, Jean Hoerni found that Silicon dioxide (SiO2) should be used to…
attached. Resonant mechanical vibrations in the device generates an oscillating signal of a specific frequency, when connected in an electronic oscillator circuit.
• Voltage: 5V
• Current: 40mA
• It can used as a source of the clock signals for digital circuits.
• It is used in circuitry in TV’S, automotive electronic devices, telephones etc.
• It can be used as a signal generator in an electronic circuitry.
5. P-CHANNEL MOSFET
FUNCTION: How to drive…
Both unipolar and bipolar PWM  can be employed. FBHSC modulation scheme is the same as the conventional FB inverter, only with addition of the modulation signal to additional switches.
The proposed topology has only four conduction states, which are presented in Fig. 3.
MOSFET on-resistance Ron is necessary to limit the instantaneous current when two capacitors are connected in parallel (e.g. in Fig. 3c). Seeing that, MOSFET is the preferred switch to realize the proposed converter, due to…
analysis is verified exactly by a prototype of a1-kW and 100-kHz boost converter. In this thesis, a boost converter operating all the switching devices under Zero Voltage Transition is studied and a model converter which can supply a load of 250W is designed and is used in a PV energy system. In this converter topology, a part of the circuit resonates for a small portion of the switching cycle of the converter, known as the auxiliary circuit that enhances the soft transition from ON state to OFF…
Table of content
Two dimensional electron system
Classical interpretation of IQHE
Quantum mechanical interpretation of IQHE
Significance of IQHE
The integral quantum hall effect (IQHE) was first discovered by Klaus von Klitzing and coworkers in 1980. It was demonstrated by two dimensional electron system in a device called metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), under low temperature and large magnetic…
of electrons, which
results into fluctuation in conductivity, arise from exchange of electrons between
the surface layer and traps lying in the oxide layer covering the surface. The
transfer of electrons took place via tunneling. Since the tunneling probability
decreases exponentially with separation between surface and trap, so does the
characteristic inverse relaxation time. This time is given by τ
−1 = τ
where λ = 10−8
cm. is a parameter that depend on x weakly. The distance…
support and shelving material in high temperature kilns such as firing ceramics, glass fusing, or glass casting
Abrasive and cutting tools
Silicon carbide is used for its hardness and high wear resistance in abrasive machining processes like grinding, honing, sand blasting and water jet cutting
Many engineering applications where high corrosive and wear resistance is required use Silicon carbide. This can be in components used in pumps or valves in oilfield applications…
3.2.1 MAIN CIRCUIT
In Fig.2.1. shows the circuit diagram of the open loop Interleaved Buck Converter IBC. The circuit is similar to that of a conventional IBC.
Fig.2.1. Circuit diagram of IBC
The active switches are connected in parallel but in this converter two active switches are connected in series and a coupling capacitor is employed in the power path. The two active switches M1 and M2 are driven with phase shift angle of 180°.
3.2.2 OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLE