Limber Pine

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  • Coevolution: On The Origin Of Species

    Guild coevolution is much more common than specific coevolution, and though the interactions between the species are similar, they are necessarily more complex. A prime example of this is the interaction between the limber pine (Pinus flexilis), the American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and the Clark 's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana). The interaction between these three species is complex, with selective pressures on each species affecting the others. The limber pine and the American red squirrel participate in a predator/prey interaction, with the red squirrel preying upon the seeds dropped by the limber pine. In reaction to this limber pine populations in areas with red squirrels developed larger cones, with more scales and fewer seeds (Benkman). In area where squirrels are absent limber pines produce cones smaller scales and twice as many seeds (Benkman). However, this also makes it more difficult for Clark’s nutcracker, the limber pines primary seed disperser, to harvest seeds. The relationship between the limber pine and the Clark’s nutcracker is mutualistic with each gaining benefit from the other. The relationship between the American red squirrel and Clark’s nutcracker is one of interspecific competition for the same resource, namely the pine seeds. Clark’s nutcrackers generally harvest seeds from cones before they drop from the tree, but when the American red squirrel is present, the selective pressure it exerts upon the cones decreases the…

    Words: 1980 - Pages: 8
  • Caribbean Sugar Trade

    ID#: _810275_ The Success of the Sugar Trade Think of the last time you had sugar. Was it yesterday, earlier today, or even just a few minutes ago. Sugar is such an immense part of our everyday lives and it's hard to think about not having it around. Cane sugar is a member of the grass family and was the kind of sugar produced in the Sugar Trade. The British sugar industry began in 1655 in Jamaica and spread from there. Cane sugar grows best in humid, hot, and tropical areas so places like the…

    Words: 977 - Pages: 4
  • Gymnosperms Research Paper

    are keystone species, community ecology tends to focus on this group of Angiosperms. A staple example can be found in Lanner’s (1996) book, aptly titled Made for Each Other: A symbiosis of Birds and Pines. Here, Whitebark pine acts as a keystone species, and has an intricate relationship with Clark’s nutcrackers (fig. 4). Whitebark pine seeds can only be dispersed when an animal carries it away. This is done by two animals: Red Squirrels and Clark’s nutcrackers. Clark’s nutcrackers hide small…

    Words: 1409 - Pages: 6
  • To The Pine Tree Analysis

    day. Whether it the temperate conditions outside or actual concrete matter, you are impacted in a great way. This can be seen in the poems Thanatopsis by William Bryant on page 123 and To the Pine Tree by Jane Schoolcraft on page 162. There are many similarities and differences that can be noticed between the two poems. Despite having more differences such as themes and overall poem structure; there are similarities as well; such as, the joy or gladness nature provides to people and also the…

    Words: 723 - Pages: 3
  • Unburned Research Paper

    Out of all, the burned area showed a significant increase in longleaf pines, (Pinus Palustris) and a decrease in woody species, compared to the unburned area. In fact, it jumped from a frequency of 15 in the unburned area to a frequency of 50; which is two times that of the burned area (see figure 1). Compared to all other species of tree, Pinus Palustris experienced the most increase of frequency. Whereas, Pinus Clausa or sand pine, was only present in the burned area showing that it was a…

    Words: 813 - Pages: 4
  • Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Poem Analysis

    In Robert Frost's Poem "Stopping By Woods on A Snowy Evening" the speaker chooses to surround himself with the dangers of nature away from the comforts of society; whereas Tennyson's "The Lady of Shalott" is in a tower locked away from the beauties of society because of her own fears. As the speaker in Frost's poem secludes himself from society he notices the dangers around him and what they could potentially cause. In Robert Frost's poem "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" he describes a man…

    Words: 1129 - Pages: 5
  • The Ghost Of Medicine Crow: A Short Story

    After awhile the old man riding in the front seat said, “Here”. Shamus’s father stopped the car and the three of them got out. Across a small coulee Shamus could see a small stream flowing from a mountain covered with majestic pine trees. The stream was flowing from an opening in the mountain canyon and Shamus swallowed deeply as he suddenly realized that the stream was the same one he had seen in the painting on the wall at his friend’s house. The stream was flowing from the mouth of Mission…

    Words: 2177 - Pages: 9
  • Forest Fire Benefits

    plant, the toadflax is preferentially avoided by the local fauna and this results in this plant out-competing the native species in the region. One of the benefits of intermittent forest fires is to clear the land of such exotic species. This provides the native species the survival edge to repopulate the burnt out forest area and flourish. Natural forest fires also provide the high temperatures required for some plant species to disperse their seeds rapidly. For example, Jack pines (Pinus…

    Words: 1690 - Pages: 7
  • Industries Experiment On The Planet Analysis

    plantation. Within these spaces, the five bodily senses; sight, smell, hearing, touch, taste, helped to identify how each location felt overall. With all the raw data collected, further analysis will take place using information obtained in class time. Furthermore, ideas will be applied to the three locations and a lengthy analysis of the course content will be applied to everyday problems concerning environmental issues that stem from greenhouse gas emissions caused by gigantic industries. The…

    Words: 2180 - Pages: 9
  • Zoology Lady Bugs

    than placed approximately two sets of 600 ladybugs in each home-made habitat I created. I also placed one set of 600 ladybugs in a flower a pot outside. I placed the containments in three different areas in order to test how temperature affected activity of the ladybugs over a period of seven days. I used the house thermometer to measure the ladybugs inside, and the garage thermometer to measure those in the garage. I measured activity by if they were crawling, number of aphids eaten and if they…

    Words: 1732 - Pages: 7
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