Gini coefficient

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  • Essay On China Capitalism

    be tied to some of the key concepts from the class readings, particularly on the comparison of national systems of political economy. Methodology For data sampling, I have selected four developed countries and two emerging countries i.e. US, Japan, Germany, Sweden, China and India. The time scale chosen for the analysis is 1990-2006, to coincide with the rise of globalization and due to data availability. The metric I utilized to track income inequality is the Gini coefficient (0 represents everyone of the nation having the same income while 1 represents one person amassing the entire nation’s income). For government fiscal policies to reduce income inequality, I will look into (i) tax revenue and (ii) social spending (education, health, housing, unemployment and social services)6. All data sources are obtained from United Nations University (UNU-WIDER), OECD, World Bank (World Development Indicators) and Asian Development Bank. Findings i. Quantitative As Figure 1 shows, the ranking from the highest to lowest mean Gini index are the United States (0.43), China (0.34), India (0.33), Japan (0.30), Germany (0.28) and Sweden (0.26). In terms of overall trend, China registers the highest rate of increase, followed by the United States and India. Germany registers very little changes in the trend while it is inconclusive for Japan due to insufficient data points. Lastly, Sweden is the only country that exhibits a decreasing trend. As Figure 2 indicates, Sweden has the highest tax…

    Words: 940 - Pages: 4
  • Patron-Clientelism In China

    policies set by Russia and China and patron-clientelism are no exception. Fiscal policies dictate how much the government spends and how much it taxes. A key difference between a capitalist state and a communist state is that a communist state holds more control over its economy through more government spending and taxation. China’s current economy relies on exports and construction, both areas that the government has great control over. Russia current economy relies on oil and mineral exports,…

    Words: 860 - Pages: 4
  • Interdependence Global Security

    Inequality will be produced between states, but also within states among different classes. First, this paper will examine inequality within state borders. The Gini coefficient is a tool used to measure the income distribution within the country. A Gini coefficient of 0 means equal distribution of income, while a Gini coefficient of 1 is the most unequal distribution. When the income data is examined in quintiles, one will see inequality rising. The interesting factor being income inequality…

    Words: 1854 - Pages: 8
  • Poverty In China Essay

    get out of poverty. But there are people still suffering from absolute poverty from long-term unemployed, low-income households, rural-urban migrant workers and farmers living in rural areas today. The incomes of the poor have been growing, yet it appears that the rich are also getting richer much faster. This is due to development policies that favor only in heavy industry, cities and special economic zones in coastal areas. As a result, urban residents earned approximately twice more than…

    Words: 1651 - Pages: 7
  • Cause Of Income Inequality

    will be used to not only draw on past trends in income distribution, but also aim to ultimately shed profound insight on “how the present inequality arose and how income inequality might be reduced in the future” [1]. Unlike the Nordic countries and Continental Europe, the United States had much higher income inequality, ranking 30th among the 40 selected world countries in 2010 (refer to Chart 1). This exposes the growing challenge that countries face in reducing overall inequality. For…

    Words: 1791 - Pages: 8
  • Education And Income Inequality Essay

    features: First, the unit of analysis is either the household versus the individual level. “If as usual the case, poor households have more members than more affluent households, the distribution of income at the household level will be more equal than that computed at the individual level. Therefore, in our regression analysis we expect to find that the Gini coefficients are greater (income distribution is more unequal) in countries that report data at the individual level” Second, if income…

    Words: 1659 - Pages: 7
  • Income Inequality In Health

    pg.1856). The main population that was being surveyed were individuals that are 18 years of age or older and lived in a private residence that included a telephone landline. The response rate of the total population of 8688 people was 50% in the United States and 66% in Canada(Mcgrail et al., 2009, pg.1856). To measure the outcome variable of health for this study, the Human Utilities Index was used because it is a very good indicator of health and has been used before in studies of population…

    Words: 1875 - Pages: 8
  • Income Inequality Essay

    of the lower middle class to undertake investments in human capital or others” and “high wealth concentration can weaken potential growth” (Mitchell). By comparing our income inequality to that of other nations, the U.S. is able to create a better understanding of the areas that they need to improve and strengthen in order to become more equal. Additionally, the OECD also describes how countries are compared and measured by a standard index called the Gini coefficient (Ross). A Gini value of 100…

    Words: 1640 - Pages: 7
  • Effects Of Corruption And Income Inequality

    Unlike the Heston and Kumar article, this article focuses solely on corruption and income inequality. The authors are keen to do this research, as no research in this domain was attempted before. They focus on various channels (education, GSP/capita, income) through which corruption may affect income inequality. They undertake an empirical research where the Gini coefficient is a dependent variable and channels of corruption act as the independent variables. They include the dummy variables as…

    Words: 1114 - Pages: 5
  • Essay On Genocide In Bangladesh

    alongside Myanmar and India and containing Asia’s three largest rivers forming the fertile Bengal Delta has led the nation to become a middle power state in international affairs and a major developing country. Introduction When examining the last 30 to 40 years, Bangladesh gained their independence from Pakistan, and established a new constitution and government. The country went through turmoil in the genocide which led to their current state, in the process, upwards of three million people…

    Words: 1476 - Pages: 6
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