Gc (i.e. interfacial fracture toughness) of the interface between Cu leadframe and EMC. They were determined by the FEM simulations using the three mentioned methods: VCCT, VCE and J-integral. The verification of simulations was performed using an analytical solution (eq. (6)). Based on the critical ERRs obtained from different specimens tested at different temperatures, the temperature dependence of the interfacial fracture toughness was investigated.
The upper EMC layer of the sample was notched with a diamond blade to get the depth of the notch, approximately 80% of the EMC thickness. Fig. 5.1 shows the 4PB test setup, and Fig. 5.2 shows…
Multi-stage fracturing is an advanced drilling technology that enhances the production capabilities through maximizing the contact area of unconventional wells with the reservoir production zones. During the fracturing process, a special fluid (primarily a mixture of sand and water) is blown out at a high pressure into the shale rock formation creating channels through which hydrocarbons can easily migrate to the well. Multi-stage fracturing is a combination of fracturing and plugging processes.…
crystalline and amorphous regions. The mechanical properties are highly antistrophic, and have great stiffness in the axial regions. The density of wood is also strong as well. This assists with its strong fracture toughness. Unfortunately wood is easily cracked in the parallel region, but not the perpendicular…
in his life that prove doctors never stop growing.
Growing up Dr. Romash was part of a struggling family living in Pennsylvania. When it came to picking his career path Dr. Romash felt the crushing pressure to help support his family. With this weight on his shoulders Dr. Romash knew he had to obtain a high paying job, but also knew paying for college that would secure this job was not in the cards. So, he decided to attend the US Military Academy at West Point where he would study…
replacing bone and mimicking their structure for, various applications.
When looking at biological materials, to determine their effectiveness as a scaffold or sufficient structure for various other uses, often they are tested for their resistance to fracture. This is referred to as fracture propagation.
Bamboo is well known for its sufficient mechanical properties, and great flexibility. It also has great fracture toughness. Bamboo is considered to be a bio composite, meaning it…
The Salter-Harris classification is a radiologic classification system, developed in the 1960s, to describe fractures involving the growth plate in pediatric patients.1 It divides the fractures into five categories based on the extent of damage to the growth plate based on the mnemonic SALTER; type I: Slip or Separation of the growth plate, type II: Above the growth plate, type III: Lower than the growth plate, type IV: Through the growth plate, and type V: Raised epiphysis. Children have open…
As we already know that knowledge of normal bone, joint and soft tissue appearances enables accurate description of abnormalities seen on X-ray.
Systematically check the alignment of bone structures, joint spacing, integrity of bone cortex, medullary bone texture, and for abnormalities of any visible surrounding soft tissue structures.
In Osteoarthritis look for LOSS:
L-Loss of joint space
Paranasal sinuses are air…
Where is David? Common Cycling Injuries
Are there common cycling injuries?
"My right knee just started hurting about 4 days ago. I am having sharp pains on the lateral side of my knee. I had to bike the last couple days with just my left leg, which (wasn't a good thing)! Hopefully it will be better tomorrow!" David Shirley, taking a few days off in Portland, Oregon.
Asking the question implies the answer; of course cycling has its list of common injuries, which are amplified when a cyclist…
Anatomy & Physiology
Anatomy is the study of the structure and relationship between body parts.
Physiology is the study of the function of body parts and the body as a whole.
Aims and Objectives
The composition of bone
The structure of a long bone
Classifying the types of joint found in the body
Description of synovial joint
How joint operates
How two different systems communicate for normal functioning of a joint
Description of a disease involving the musculoskeletal system
I am not a boxer, but I got a boxer's fracture. A boxer's fracture is a fracture of one of the metacarpal bones in the hand. The fracture occurs when a person hits an immovable object with a closed fist. That is exactly what I did about one year ago. My ex boyfriend's collar bone was the point of contact.
It was just a regular day at Calvary Baptist Academy. I thought it was atleast. As I was walking down the hallway, a friend stopped me to tell me that my ex boyfriend, Christian, had done…