Case Study: Horseshoe Crab

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- There is a high degree of mineralization CaCo3 in the form of calcite
- Contains fibers that bundle and form in a twisted plywood helical structure
Horseshoe Crab
The horseshoe crab has a composite of 3 layers:
1) Exterior shell - similar to crab but no mineral phase
2) Intermediate layer – vertical laminate
3) Inner core - open cell foam structure that is hollow in the middle
Sheep crab
The sheep crab shell is made of highly dense tubules that help enhance toughness. They also have a high mineral content that is more densely packed to maintain structure for security and strength.
Antlers
Antlers are one of the most impact resistant and energy absorbent bio mineralized materials. They have very bony inter tubules that connect to the head
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It has high stiffness as well as strength that is compared closely to steel. Its main structure is a result of the cellulose. It is made of organized micro fibrils, and also has crystalline and amorphous regions. The mechanical properties are highly antistrophic, and have great stiffness in the axial regions. The density of wood is also strong as well. This assists with its strong fracture toughness. Unfortunately wood is easily cracked in the parallel region, but not the perpendicular …show more content…
Because most materials cannot be analyzed in terms of biodegradability and biocompatibility, a lot of the materials are reviewed based on their ability to avoid crack propagation and development.
Bamboo has strong mechanical integrity and flexibility, making it ideal for environmental and external pressures of bone. The flexibility should assist with movement. Because it is a bio-composite, it contains the properties of multiple scaffolds, giving it a wide range of its protection of the bone. It is also a fast growing material; therefore there is an abundance that can be used as substitutes. The hollow vessels within the bamboo allow for there to be cell proliferation and vascularization to occur, as bone is being regenerated. In terms of its mechanical properties, bamboo is very light weight making it ideal for implementing into the body, without the worry of excess weight being added. Crack propagation is strong in bamboo, as a result of the hollow vessels, making it fracture resistant and mechanical durable to withstand the pressures that bone may

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